Archive for November, 2011

IBM Names Virginia Rometty First Female CEO

IBM has named 30-year company veteran Virginia Rometty as its first female CEO.

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Rometty will succeed the outgoing Samuel Palmisano (both pictured) in the post on Jan. 1, 2012. Palmisano will remain chairman of IBM’s board. Rometty, who joined IBM in 1981 as a systems engineer, currently serves as svp and group executive for sales, marketing and strategy for the company.

SEE ALSO: Why Women Make Excellent Entrepreneurs in the Digital Age

Palmisano has been CEO of the company since 2002. Under his watch, IBM exited some commoditized businesses like PCs, printers and hard drives and has overseen expansion into China, Brazil, India and Russia, among other emerging markets.

Though there was a time when women CEOs at tech companies was unheard of, in the last 20 years there have been several, including Carly Fiorina of Hewlett-Packard and Meg Whitman of eBay.

Free Avaya 6401-1 Exam Q & A / Study Guide

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QUESTION 1
You want to install ContactStore on a PC separate from the VoiceMail Pro PC . Which three steps
would you need to complete for ContactStore to function separately? (Choose three.)

A. Verify that the Voice Recording Library on the VoiceMail Pro server is shared on the customer’s network.
B. Verify that the ContactStore service has read and write permissions to the Voice Recording Library Share.
C. Verify that the ContactStore registry settings have been updated to see the Voice Recording Library share.
D. Verify that the VoiceMail Pro registry settings have been updated to point to the Voice Recording Library share.
E. Verify that the ContactStore licenses have been loaded onto the PC running the ContactStore application.

Answer: A,B,E

Reference: http://www.carrollcommunications.com/contact_store.html


QUESTION 2
A remote user wants to gain access to the network when using the RAS server.
Under which two conditions would you create an IP route? (Choose two.)

A. when the remote user’s dial-up connection method contains a DHCP address that is on a different subnet
B. when the user is on the same subnet as the IP Office
C. when the remote user’s dial-up connection method contains a static IP address that is on a different subnet
D. when the IP Office’s DHCP mode is set to Server or Dial In and the PC connection method is set to obtain an IP Address Automatically

Answer: A,C

Explanation:


QUESTION 3
A user (ext. 199) reports that their IMS client displays an error message when attempting to ring a
phone. What are three reasons that would prevent the IMS program from calling the phone?
(Choose three.)

A. The user profile in Manager has “199″ entered as the user name.
B. The phone is set for “Do Not Disturb”.
C. The user’s “Multi Line Option” is set to “Answer Pre-select”.
D. The user mailbox is set to “Blank” under Outlook Tools/Integrated Messaging.
E. The user’s profile has “System Phone” is set to “On”.

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation:


QUESTION 4
Click the Exhibit button.

A customer has two sites, each with an IP Office linked via a private digital line (E1/T1). The head
office is connected to the public network through a digital exchange line. The remote site gains
access to the public network via the head office.
How should Clock Quality be set in the IP Office on the lines marked X and Y in the exhibit?

A. X – Network — Y – Fallback
B. X ?Fallback — Y – Fallback
C. X ?Network — Y – Unsuitable
D. X ?Fallback — Y – Unsuitable

Answer: A
Reference: http://support.avaya.com/elmodocs2/ip_office/R3.1/maintenance.pdf(page 20)


QUESTION 5
Which two are used to turn on Small Community Networking within the main IP Office 500?
(Choose two.)

A. RAS
B. FastStart
C. Voice Networking
D. Professional License Enabled

Answer: C,D

Explanation:


QUESTION 6
How much space does a recording in VoiceMail Pro use on a hard drive?

A. 1MB per minute
B. 500KB per minute
C. 2MB per minute
D. 1.5MB per minute

Answer: A

Explanation:


QUESTION 7
Which two e-mail protocols are used by VoiceMail Pro to perform voicemail to e-mail? (Choose two.)

A. POP 3
B. SMTP
C. MAPI
D. IMAP

Answer: B,C

Explanation:


QUESTION 8
A customer is receiving calls to a hunt group and the callers are reporting that they are being
forced to wait much longer than VoiceMail Pro reported to them during the queued message. What
is a possible cause for this?

A. The hunt group has a priority set to 1.
B. The hunt group has a priority set to 3.
C. There are two routes going to the hunt group. Each has different priorities set.
D. Users in the hunt group have inconsistent priority settings. The users with a priority set to 3 are always busy.

Answer: C

Explanation:


QUESTION 9
What information do you need from a customer to be able to reproduce a call park problem?
(Choose three.)

A. accurate description of the problem
B. a System Monitor trace of the problem
C. a Network Assessment
D. the system configuration
E. information on the phones and lines being used

Answer: A,D,E

Explanation:


QUESTION 10
When using Small Community Networking which two features require the Small Community
Advanced License to function? (Choose two.)

A. Hot Desking
B. Hot Desking across the SCN
C. playing queued announcements
D. Break Out dialing

Answer: B,D

Explanation:

 

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Ten Great Strategies For Today’s Climate

This is a challenging time to be in business but there lies the opportunity. I’ve listed 10 specific characteristics of downtimes and 10 positive strategies that embrace and capitalize on them.

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More time to create a focused business: Use this slower paced market to revisit the business you are in – what defines you. This is the perfect time for repositioning, selling off non-core subsidiaries, sharpening up product road maps and value propositions.
Flight to price and quality: Now is the time to revisit your product mix and pricing strategies. Buying behavior changes dramatically in a recession. Lower priced versions of your product or subscription based business models may be relevant to ease customer cash flow pain.
Measuring the signals is vital:> Mistakes made in downtimes can prove fatal.
Convert your Accounts Department into a Metrics Center. Trap and visualize your key performance indicators. Audit the signals and constantly interpret the significance to your strategies.
Acquisitions just got cheap: PE ratios of the majority of public companies are in single digits and the valuations of private companies are low. Consider a proactive approach to acquisitions by building a robust acquisition process that is proven to work.
The “C” level suite just got a free pass to visit their customers: Never has there been a better time for the inner cabinet to visit their customers to understand the specific issues challenging them. It’s not only productive, it’s essential for shaping strategy. Define your engagement strategy and get on site.
Value Propositions must improve a customer’s performance: Receiving a purchase order, confirming a big deal is very satisfying but it’s not enough. You need to be invested in the improved performance that will be achieved because your customer uses your product. Does your sales process achieve this?
Curiosity & Urgency of managers dramatically increased: Well it certainly should have. This new level of alertness (perhaps it’s fear) needs to be channeled to produce results. Difficult projects shelved in better times are prime candidates for this energy. Staff want to be effective and busy to get things moving again. Tap into this momentum.
People and tasks are mis-aligned: Now is the time to think like a start-up. The key –Define Performance Profiles that your company needs to be executed, not job specs but tasks that need to be done well. This will cause old jobs to be merged and new jobs to be created.
Silo Management is broken: Urgent initiatives will fail without cross-functional support. Company visions need to inspire and flow across functions. Build cross functional teams to execute top priorities.
Competition thins out: It might be difficult to create double digit growth but you can grab market share. The best companies don’t just survive bad times; they grow and develop into more robust and valuable businesses.

As an experienced business leader, Ian Smith is passionate about maximizing the potential of fast-growing companies. The Portfolio Partnership offers Corporate Development Services on an advisory, operational or investment model. Specifically we execute growth strategies by repositioning companies organically and/or by acquisition.

Ian was educated in Scotland, earning a BA degree from the University of Strathclyde and qualified as a Chartered Accountant of Scotland with Grant Thornton. Post qualification he joined Thomson the publishing giant and became one of their youngest divisional Finance Directors at 26 and was awarded the prestigious, UK Accountant of the Year ahead of many experienced FDs. From 1988 to 2000 he successfully built up two major boutique M&A advisory firms, Livingstone Guarantee and Capita Corporate Finance. During this period he completed over 40 acquisition, disposal or finance transactions, many cross border, many in the technology sector. He assisted dozens of entrepreneurs execute their vision.

In late 2001 he moved to the states to successfully reposition and grow Teamstudio, an IBM business partner with HQ in Beverly, MA and offices in the UK and Japan. During the next 5 years the top line was grown by over 45% and losses were turned into EBITDA of over $10m. high achiever, Ian expects the highest performance from his staff but always mixed with a Glaswegian sense of humor!

HP server revenue falls in turbulent quarter, Gartner says

Worldwide server revenue grew 5.2% in the third quarter but declined for Hewlett-Packard (HP), Gartner Inc. said in a report on server sales during the quarter that ended Sept. 30.

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HP’s quarter was a restless one. It fired one CEO and hired another and left the market wondering whether it was going to sell or spin-off its PC division, a move it later rejected.

In this same quarter, IBM’s revenue share of the worldwide server market reached $3.85 billion, a 3.5% increase from a year ago. That gave it 29.7% of the worldwide market, nudging it ahead of HP for the top spot.

HP’s server revenue, just over $3.8 billion, declined 3.6% from a year ago, leaving it with 29.3% of the world’s market, according to Gartner. Third place Dell, meanwhile, grew 6.3% in server revenue during the period to more than $1.9 billion; it now has 14.7% share of the worldwide market.

Meg Whitman, the former CEO of eBay who was appointed in September as HP’s new CEO, told financial analysts last week that HP needs “be simpler, clearer, and more consistent — no more surprises.”

Whitman cited the importance of innovation in selling products. Pointing to HP’s recent introduction of low energy servers, Whitman said the company is increasing its investment in research and development.

HP has been hurt by Oracle’s decision to discontinue software development on the Itanium processor, the company acknowledged.

“Our ability to close deals has been impacted by Oracle’s Itanium decision,” said HP’s CFO, Cathie Lesjak, said during last week’s call.

Gartner said that RISC-based systems and Itanium servers declined 6.8% worldwide, but vendors overall saw revenues increase 3.5%. Oracle Corp., which picked up Sun Microsystems’ SPARC line, was in fourth place in revenue on Gartner’s list, with nearly $764 million in server revenue. It had 6.2% of the market, unchanged from a year ago.

When measured by server shipments, HP saw a 3.1% decline in the third quarter to 693,265 shipments. It remains the leader in that category, followed by Dell, which increased shipments by 3.2%, to 517,867, and IBM, which saw no percentage change in shipments. IBM had 287,507 shipments, according to Gartner.

Market share as measured by shipments put HP at 29.2% of the market, Dell, 21.8% and IBM, 12.1%, Gartner said.

In Western Europe, beset by a financial crisis, server sales fell nearly 5%; that decline was offset by gains in other regions, including in Eastern Europe.

Jeffrey Hewitt, research vice president at Gartner, said that he can’t definitely attribute HP’s server revenue decline to its board level issues, but said it is possible that some businesses held off on orders in response. He cited other issues affecting HP’s server sales, namely the decline in Unix and Oracle’s Itanium decision, as contributing factors as well.

Unix, RISC and Itanium server revenue for HP fell 18.5% in the quarter, while IBM revenue grew by 27%. Oracle revenue in this category fell 11.6%, according to Gartner.

Hewitt said HP’s third quarter “is likely to be something of a temporary glitch” that he expects the company to move past.

Free Microsoft 70-291 Q & A / Study Guide Part II

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QUESTION 1:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows XP Professional. The Certkingdom.com network contains a
print server named Certkingdom -PR01 that has a built-in network interface.
A Certkingdom.com user named Andy Reid is a member of the Research and
Development department. Andy Reid complains that he cannot print to a print
device attached to Certkingdom -PR01.
You have received instruction to ensure that Andy Reid can print to the print
device. First you verify that the IP address for Certkingdom -PR01 is correct and that
the latest drivers for the print device are installed. You now want to verify that the
print jobs are being sent to the correct MAC address for Certkingdom -PR01.
What should do?

A. On Certkingdom -PR01, run the net session command.
B. On Certkingdom -PR01, run the netstat command.
C. On Certkingdom -PR01, run the netsh command.
D. On Certkingdom -PR01, run the netcap command.

Answer: D

Explaination: Netstcap.exe is a command line tool that could be used to capture the
network traffic. A filter can be created to be used during the capture to determine the
MAC address the print jobs are being sent to. The Network Monitor Capture Utility (
Netcap.exe) can be used to capture network traffic in Network Monitor. Netcap provides
capture abilities only from a command prompt; to open the resulting capture (.cap) files,
you must use the full Network Monitor interface. Netcap is installed when you install the
Support tools that are on the Windows XP CD-ROM. Netcap provides capture abilities
that are similar to the version of Network Monitor that is included with the Windows
Server products; however, you must use Netcap at a command prompt. Netcap installs
the Network Monitor driver and binds it to all adapters when you first run the Netcap command.
Incorrect Options:
A: The net session command can be used to view the computer names and user names of
users on a server, to see if users have files open, and to see how long each user’s session
has been idle. Net session manages server computer connections – used without
parameters, net session displays information about all sessions with the local computer.
B: The netstat command is not a utility to use when troubleshooting NetBIOS names, but
is used to display TCP/IP and port information.
C: The Network Shell utility (Netsh.exe) can perform a wide range of system
configuration tasks. You can use commands in the Netsh Interface IP context to
configure the TCP/IP protocol (including addresses, default gateways, DNS servers, and
WINS servers) and to display configuration and statistical information.
Reference:
Microsoft Knowledge Base: 306794: How to Install the Support Tools from the Windows
XP CD-ROM Network Monitor is provided with Windows Server products and
Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS). Microsoft Corporation, 2004
Deborah Littlejohn Shinder, Dr. Thomas W. Shinder, Chad Todd & Laura Hunter,
MCSA/MCSE: Exam 70-291: Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows
Server 2003 Network Infrastructure Guide & DVD Training System, pp. 686, 854-856,
926


QUESTION 2:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of two subnets. All servers on the Certkingdom.com network run
Windows Server 2003 and all client computers run Windows XP Professional. All
servers are located in a central data center that uses a single IP subnet and all client
computers are located in one subnet.
The data center contains two routers named Certkingdom -SR01 and
Certkingdom -SR02, two domain controllers named Certkingdom -DC01 and
Certkingdom -DC02, and two file servers named Certkingdom -SR03 and
Certkingdom -SR04. The IP addresses of these servers are indicated in the table
below.

Host name IP address
Certkingdom-DC01 10.10.10.1
Certkingdom -DC02 10.10.10.2
Certkingdom -SR01 10.10.1.1
Certkingdom -SR02 10.10.1.2
Certkingdom -SR03 10.10.11.1
Certkingdom -SR04 10.10.11.2

You have received instruction from the CIO to install a new database server in the
data center. You install Windows Server 2003 on a new server computer named
Certkingdom -DB01 and hand it over to a database administrator named Dean
Austin. Dean Austin installs Microsoft SQL Server 2005 and makes some changes to
the TCP/IP settings on Certkingdom -DB01 as shown in the following table.

Parameter Value
IP address 10.10.1.3
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
Default gateway 10.10.1.2

Later, Dean Austin complains that Certkingdom -DB01 cannot communicate with the
other servers in the data center. All other servers in the data center can
communicate with the other servers as well as the client computers. You log on to
Certkingdom -DB01 and attempt to ping Certkingdom -DC01 but you receive the
following error message: “Destination host unreachable”.
What should you do to ensure that Certkingdom -DB01 can communicate with the
other computers in the Certkingdom.com network?

A. Configure Certkingdom -DB01 with a default gateway of 10.10.1.1.
B. Configure Certkingdom -DB01 with a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0.
C. Configure Certkingdom -DB01 with an IP address of 10.10.10.3.
D. Configure Certkingdom -DB01 with an IP address of 10.10.11.3.

Answer: B

Explaination: Large networks are subdivided to create smaller subnetworks to reduce
overall network traffic by keeping local traffic on the local subnet and sending all
nonlocal traffic to the router. In order to create a subnetwork, we need to have a system
for addressing that allows us to use the network ID and host ID within the class-based
system. This is accomplished through the use of a subnet mask. To determine the
appropriate custom subnet mask (typically referred to simply as subnet mask) for a
network, you must first:
1. Determine the number of host bits to be used for subnetting.
2. Determine the new subnetted network IDs.
3. Determine the IP addresses for each new subnet.
4. Determine the appropriate subnet mask.
Incorrect Answers:
A: You need to assign the correct subnet mask to ensure connectivity.
C, D: The problem in this scenario is not a faulty IP address. It is the appropriate subnet
mask that has to be determined to enable connectivity.
Reference:
Deborah Littlejohn Shinder, Dr. Thomas W. Shinder, Chad Todd and Laura Hunter,
MCSA/MCSE: Exam 70-291: Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows
Server 2003 Network Infrastructure Guide & DVD Training System, p. 57


QUESTION 3:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of two subnets named Subnet A and Subnet B. Subnet A and
Subnet B are connected by a router. All computers on the Certkingdom.com network
are configured with static IP addresses. All network servers run Windows Server
2003 and all client computers run Windows XP Professional.
Certkingdom.com hires a new Sales manager named Amy Wilson. You install a new
client computer named Certkingdom -WS291 for Amy Wilson. You then add
Certkingdom -WS291 to Subnet A. The relevant portion of the network is configured
as shown in the exhibit.

However, Amy Wilson complains that Certkingdom -WS291 cannot communicate
with other hosts on the network.
What should you do to ensure that Certkingdom -WS291 can communicate with all
local and remote computers on the Certkingdom.com network?

A. Configure Certkingdom -WS291 with a default gateway of 192.168.28.84.
B. Configure Certkingdom -WS291 with a default gateway of 192.168.2.1.
C. Configure Certkingdom -WS291 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.128.
D. Configure Certkingdom -WS291 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.192.

Answer: C

Explaination: It is evident from the exhibit that the file server and
Certkingdom -WS291 have a different subnet mask. This is the reason why they
cannot communicate with each other. You must therefore change the subnet mask
of Certkingdom -WS291 to 255.255.255.128.
Incorrect Answers:
A, B: The problem is not the gateway IP address that is faulty, but rather the subnet
mask.
D: This option suggests the correct object that has to be changed, but it gives the wrong
subnet mask.
Reference:
Deborah Littlejohn Shinder, Dr. Thomas W. Shinder, Chad Todd and Laura Hunter,
MCSA/MCSE: Exam 70-291: Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows
Server 2003 Network Infrastructure Guide & DVD Training System, p. 57


QUESTION 4:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com
Certkingdom.com has its headquarters in Chicago and branch offices in Dallas and
Miami. All servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all
client computers run Windows XP Professional. You work in the Miami branch
office.
The network at the Miami branch office consists of 25 different subnets, each with a
maximum of six computers. The network administrator at headquarters has
allocated the 192.168.3.0/24 network address to the Miami branch office.
You install a new server named Certkingdom -SR21 in the Miami branch office. You
need to configure the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) properties for Certkingdom -SR21.
You configure Certkingdom -SR21 with an IP address of 192.168.3.44. What subnet
mask should you use?

A. A subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
B. A subnet mask of 255.255.255.128.
C. A subnet mask of 255.255.255.192.
D. A subnet mask of 255.255.255.240.
E. A subnet mask of 255.255.255.248.

Answer: E

Explaination: The network address is: 192.168.2.0/24, which means
11111111.11111111.11111111.0 in binary.
Therefore, you can use the last octet to configure the 30 subnets and 6 hosts in each
subnet
You need only six host PCs. When you convert to binary, it is: 00000111. As a result,
you use 3 bits.
This leaves 5 bits for the subnets 11111000 converted to decimal:
128+64+32+16+8=248, therefore the subnet mask will be: 255.255.255.248.
Reference:
Deborah Littlejohn Shinder, Dr. Thomas W. Shinder, Chad Todd and Laura Hunter,
MCSA/MCSE: Exam 70-291: Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows
Server 2003 Network Infrastructure Guide & DVD Training System, p.57


QUESTION 5:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com
Certkingdom.com has its headquarters in Chicago and a branch office in Dallas. All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows XP Professional. You work in the Dallas branch office.
The network at the Dallas branch office consists of a single subnet that contains 150
client computers and 12 servers. The network administrator at headquarters has
allocated the 10.10.0.0/16 network address to the Dallas branch office.
You have received instruction from your manager to place all servers at the Dallas
branch office into a separate subnet that uses the 192.168.10 public addressing
scheme. Your manager asks you to make allowance for a maximum of 30 servers in
the new subnet.
Which subnet mask should you use for the new subnet?

A. 255.255.255.224
B. 255.255.255.240
C. 255.255.255.248
D. 255.255.255.252
E. 255.255.255.254

Answer: A

Explaination: A 255.255.255.224 subnet mask gives five host address bits, so the
maximum number of host addresses is 2 ^ 5 – 2 = 30 host addresses. Thus
255.255.255.224 is the only subnet mask that will allow for sufficient IP addresses in
case of further growth, whilst still conserving as many current addresses as possible.
Reference:
Deborah Littlejohn Shinder, Dr. Thomas W. Shinder, Chad Todd and Laura Hunter,
MCSA/MCSE: Exam 70-291: Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows
Server 2003 Network Infrastructure Guide & DVD Training System, p. 62


QUESTION 6:

DRAG DROP
You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows XP Professional.
You have installed a new server named Certkingdom -SR06 on the network. The
relevant portion of the network is shown on the exhibit.

You want to configure Certkingdom -SR06 with a valid static IP configuration.
Certkingdom -SR06 must be able to communicate with all hosts on the network and
on the internet. You also need to configure Certkingdom -SR06 to use the DNS server
on the local subnet for name resolution. In addition, you must configure redundancy
for name resolution.
How should you configure Certkingdom -SR06?
To answer drag the appropriate IP addresses and Subnet masks to the appropriate
places.

Answer:

Explaination:
The Class C address 192.168.0.100 has to be the IP address to enable
Certkingdom -SR06 to communicate with all hosts on the network and on the internet
as 192.168.0.1, 192.168.0.2 and 192.168.0.110 are already in use. 192.168.5.2 and
192.168.5.100 are on the wrong subnet, and besides, 192.168.5.12 is already in use.
The subnet mask for this Class C address is 255.255.255.0. The default gateway
should be 192.168.0.1. To configure redundancy for name resolution, configure the
preferred DNS server/primary address as 192.168.0.2, and the alternate DNS
server/secondary address as 192.168.5.2.
Reference:
J. C. Mackin, Ian McLean, MCSA/MCSE Self-Paced Training Kit (exam 70-291):
Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 network
Infrastructure, Part 1, Chapter 2, pp. 80-116


QUESTION 7:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows XP Professional. Certkingdom.com has its headquarters in
Chicago and branch offices in Dallas and Miami. You work in the Miami branch
office.
The Miami branch office has a file server named Certkingdom -SR25 that hosts
critical documents. Certkingdom -SR25 is configured with a DHCP client reservation.
Certkingdom.com users from all three offices download documents from
Certkingdom -SR25.
One day Certkingdom.com users complain that they cannot access the documents on
Certkingdom -SR25. You discover that the DHCP server has failed. The DHCP server
is located at headquarters.
You have received instruction from the CIO to ensure that Certkingdom -SR25 is
available even if it is unable to obtain or renew a lease from the DHCP server.
How could you accomplish this task?

A. On the DHCP server, increase the DHCP lease period.
B. Configure alternate IP settings for Certkingdom -SR25 on the Alternate Configuration
tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) properties.
C. Configure the DHCP scope in the 169.254.0.1. – 169.254.255.254 range.
D. On the DHCP server, configure the DHCP 001 Resource Location Servers reservation
option for Certkingdom -SR25.

Answer: B

Explaination: Windows Server 2003 includes the Alternate Configuration feature.
The Windows Server 2003 servers can be configured to use an alternate static IP
configuration if a DHCP server is unavailable. When a DHCP client determines that
the DHCP server is unavailable, it will automatically change over and also configure
the TCP/IP stack with the static address information specified on the Alternate
Configuration tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) properties.
Incorrect Answers:
A: Increasing the lease period would result in DHCP clients requesting leases less
frequently, but won’t guarantee that Certkingdom -SR25 will be available when the DHCP
server is down.
C: Modifying the DHCP scope to the 169.254.0.1. – 169.254.255.254 range will still be
reliant on the DHCP server.
D: Configuring the DHCP 001 Resource Location Servers reservation option for
Certkingdom -SR25 on the DHCP server will not ensure that Certkingdom -SR25 will
receive an IP address or have the IP address renewed.
Reference:
J. C. Mackin, Ian McLean, MCSA/MCSE Self-Paced Training Kit (exam 70-291):
Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 network
Infrastructure, Part 1, Chapter 2, pp. 114, 117


QUESTION 8:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows XP Professional. The Certkingdom.com network contains a
server named Certkingdom -SR34. Certkingdom -SR34 is configured as a DHCP server
and has been authorized in Active Directory. The Telnet service has been installed
and started on Certkingdom -SR34.
One day Certkingdom.com users complain that they cannot access network resources.
Your investigations reveal that the DHCP Server service on Certkingdom -SR34 has
stopped. You install the administrative tools on a client computer named
Certkingdom -WS291 and log on to the computer. When you open the DHCP console
on Certkingdom -WS291 and attempt to connect to Certkingdom -SR34, you receive an
error message that states: “Cannot find the DHCP Server.” You then attempt to
ping Certkingdom -SR34 but fail.
How can you connect to the DHCP Server service on Certkingdom -SR34 by using the
DHCP console on Certkingdom -WS291?

A. Establish a Telnet session to Certkingdom -SR34 and then run the net start dhcp
command.
B. Establish a Telnet session to Certkingdom -SR34 and then run the net start dhcpserver
command.
C. Establish a Telnet session to Certkingdom -SR34 and then run the ipconfig /renew
command.
D. On Certkingdom -WS291, run the netsh dhcp server\\ Certkingdom -SR34 show server
command.

Answer: B

Explaination: You can start the DHCP Server service by executing the Net Start
Dhcpserver command at the command prompt.
Telnet is a protocol that enables an Internet user to log on to and enter commands on a
remote computer linked to the Internet, as if the user were using a text-based terminal
directly attached to that computer. Telnet is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. The
term telnet also refers to the software (client or server component) that implements this
protocol.
Given the fact that you can ping Certkingdom -SR34 you should then establish a Telnet
session to Certkingdom -SR34 and then run the appropriate command.
Reference:
J. C. Mackin & Ian McLean, MCSA/MCSE self-paced training kit (exam 70-291):
implementing, managing, and maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 network
infrastructure, Microsoft Press, Redmond, 2004, p. 7-23


QUESTION 9:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows XP Professional. The Certkingdom.com network contains a
server named Certkingdom -SR51 that is configured as a print server for a print
device that has a built-in network interface. The print device is used by the Sales
department to print Sales reports.
A Certkingdom.com user named Clive Allen is a member of the Sales department. Clive
Allen complains that he cannot print to the print device attached to
Certkingdom -SR51.
You verify that the IP address for Certkingdom -SR51 is correct and that the correct
drivers for the print device are installed. You now want to verify that the print jobs
are being sent to the correct MAC address for Certkingdom -SR51.
You log on to Certkingdom -SR51. What should you do next?

A. Run the net session command.
B. Run the netstat command.
C. Run the netsh command.
D. Run the netcap command.

Answer: D

Explaination: Netstcap.exe is a command line tool that could be used to capture the
network traffic. A filter can be created to be used during the capture to determine the
MAC address the print jobs are being sent to. The Network Monitor Capture Utility (
Netcap.exe) can be used to capture network traffic in Network Monitor. Netcap provides
capture abilities only from a command prompt; to open the resulting capture (.cap) files,
you must use the full Network Monitor interface. Netcap is installed when you install the
Support tools that are on the Windows XP CD-ROM. Netcap provides capture abilities
that are similar to the version of Network Monitor that is included with the Windows
Server products; however, you must use Netcap at a command prompt. Netcap installs
the Network Monitor driver and binds it to all adapters when you first run the Netcap
command.
Incorrect Options:
A: The net session command can be used to view the computer names and user names of users
on a server, to see if users have files open, and to see how long each user’s session has
been idle. Net session manages server computer connections – used without parameters,
net session displays information about all sessions with the local computer.
B: The netstat command is not a utility to use when troubleshooting NetBIOS names, but
is used to show what ports your computer is listening on.: -R is used to reload your
LMHOSTS file located in %systemroot%\system32\drivers\etc., -r will show you which
name resolutions have been answered via broadcasts, and which have been answered via
a NetBIOS name server, -RR switch of the command utility refreshes your NetBIOS
name with a configured WINS server.
C: The Network Shell utility (Netsh.exe) can perform a wide range of system
configuration tasks. You can use commands in the Netsh Interface IP context to
configure the TCP/IP protocol (including addresses, default gateways, DNS servers, and
WINS servers) and to display configuration and statistical information.
Reference:
Microsoft Knowledge Base: 306794: How to Install the Support Tools from the Windows
XP CD-ROM Network Monitor is provided with Windows Server products and
Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS). Microsoft Corporation, 2004
Deborah Littlejohn Shinder, Dr. Thomas W. Shinder, Chad Todd & Laura Hunter,
MCSA/MCSE: Exam 70-291: Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows
Server 2003 Network Infrastructure Guide & DVD Training System, pp. 686, 854-856,
926


QUESTION 10:

Network Topology Exhibit:

LAN Settings Exhibit:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows XP Professional. The Certkingdom.com network contains a
Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server computer named
Certkingdom -SR01, a DNS server named Certkingdom -SR02, a DHCP server named
Certkingdom -SR03, a file server named Certkingdom -SR21, and a Web server named
Certkingdom-SR25. Certkingdom -SR25 also serves as a central antivirus server.
Certkingdom -SR21 is located on the 10.10.11.0 subnet and Certkingdom -SR25 is
located in the perimeter network. Certkingdom -SR21 contains antivirus software
that checks for new virus definitions on Certkingdom -SR25 every hour. You can also
access Certkingdom -SR25 through a virus update Web page to perform manual
virus definition updates.
Certkingdom -SR03 suffers a catastrophic failure and is removed from the network.
Due to budgetary constraints, a replacement for Certkingdom -SR03 will only be
acquired in the next financial year. You need to redesign network addressing
scheme, and change the IP addresses for Certkingdom -SR01 to the addresses shown
in the Network Topology exhibit.
Certkingdom -SR02 contains the new host (A) resource records for
Certkingdom -SR01.
You receive reports about a new virus threat and want to protect the network
immediately by manually downloading the new virus definitions to
Certkingdom -SR21. you log on to Certkingdom -SR21 but discover that you cannot
access the virus update Web page on Certkingdom -SR25. The static TCP/IP
configuration on Certkingdom -SR21 uses Certkingdom -SR02 as the preferred DNS
server.
You confirm that Certkingdom -SR01 is configured properly. On Certkingdom -SR21,
you view the Internet Explorer LAN settings that are shown in the LAN Settings
exhibit.
What should you do to allow Certkingdom -SR21 to connect to Certkingdom -SR25?

A. At a command prompt on Certkingdom -SR21, run the ipconfig /flushdns command.
B. In the LAN settings of Internet Explorer on Certkingdom -SR21, select the
Automatically detect settings check box.
C. At a command prompt on Certkingdom -SR01, run the ipconfig / flushdns command.
D. At a command prompt on Certkingdom -SR01, run the ipconfig /registerdns command.

Answer: A

Explaination: Running the ipconfig /flushdns command will flush and reset the DNS
resolver cache which is necessary to allow connection. Run this command on
Certkingdom -SR21 to connect to Certkingdom -SR25.
Incorrect Answers:
B: Selecting the “Automatically detect settings” checkbox is not going to allow
Certkingdom -SR21 to connect to WWW.
C: The ipconfig /flushdns command flushes and resets the DNS resolver cache. This is
not what is necessary.
D: The ipconfig /registerdns command refreshes all DHCP leases and registers any related
DNS names. This option is available only on Windows 2000 and newer computers that
run the DHCP Client service. This is not going to allow Certkingdom -SR21 to connect to
WWW when it is run on Certkingdom -SR01.
Reference:
James Chellis, Paul Robichaux and Matthew Sheltz, MCSA/MCSE: Windows Server
2003 Network Infrastructure Implementation, Management, and Maintenance Study
Guide, p. 311


QUESTION 11:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows XP Professional. The Certkingdom.com network contains a
DHCP server named Certkingdom -SR15 that is configured with a single scope.
Certkingdom.com hires a new Sales manager named Andy Reid. You install a new client
computer named Certkingdom -WS291 for Andy Reid. You connect
Certkingdom -WS291 to the network by plugging the network cable into the network
adapter on Certkingdom -WS291 and attempt to connect to Certkingdom -SR25.
However, you cannot access any of the servers on the network. When you open a
command prompt on Certkingdom -WS291 and run the ipconfig /renew command,
you receive the following response.

You log on to a client computer named Certkingdom -WS292 and run the ipconfig
/renew command successfully.
What should you do to ensure that Certkingdom -WS291 can receive its IP address
configuration from the Certkingdom -SR25?

A. Restart the DHCP service on Certkingdom -SR25.
B. Restart Certkingdom -WS291.
C. Restart Certkingdom -SR25.
D. Add additional IP addresses to the scope on Certkingdom -SR25.

Answer: B

Explaination: It is probable that the TCP/IP stack has a problem because the
computer is unable to send a DHCP discover broadcast packet. This can happen
when you insert a network cable after the PC has been started. You should restart
the client PC to successfully obtain a new IP address.
Incorrect Answers:
A, C, D: This is unnecessary because Certkingdom -WS292 did obtain an IP address from
the DHCP server, thus indicating that the DHCP server configuration is not the issue.
Reference:
Deborah Littlejohn Shinder and Dr. Thomas W. Shinder, MCSA/MCSE Exam 70-290:
Managing and Maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Environment Study Guide & DVD
Training System, p. 629


QUESTION 12:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows XP Professional. Certkingdom.com has its headquarters in
Chicago and branch offices in Dallas and Miami. The Certkingdom.com network
contains a DHCP server named Certkingdom -SR01. The relevant portion of the
network is shown in the following network diagram.

You work at headquarters. A Certkingdom.com employee named Andy Booth is one of
three employees that are relocated to headquarters from the Dallas office. Andy
Booth uses a portable client computer named Certkingdom -WS291. Andy Booth
complains that when he plugs Certkingdom -WS291 into the LAN connection in his
new cubicle, he cannot connect to network resources on the LAN or the Internet.
None of the other employees are experiencing the same problem.
When you run the ipconfig command from a command prompt on
Certkingdom -WS291, you see the output as shown in the exhibit.

What should you do to allow Certkingdom -WS291 to connect to network resources
on the LAN or the Internet?

A. Configure Certkingdom -WS291 with a subnet mask of 255.255.240.0.
B. Configure Certkingdom -WS291 with a default gateway of 192.168.3.12.
C. Configure Certkingdom -WS291 with a primary DNS suffix of Certkingdom.com
D. Configure Certkingdom -WS291 to automatically lease an IP address from
Certkingdom -SR01.

Answer: D

Explaination: The client computers on the subnet use DHCP to obtain their IP
configurations. Certkingdom -WS291 has a static IP address, and therefore cannot
obtain a valid IP configuration from the DHCP server.
Incorrect Answers:
A: By changing the subnet mask you will not ensure that Certkingdom -WS291 will
connect to other computers and the Internet.
B: Changing the default gateway will not enable Certkingdom -WS291 LAN connection.
Besides, 192.168.3.12 is the IP address of the DHCP server.
C: Adding a primary DNS suffix means that only domain names listed in that window
will be tried for resolution purposes. Both the connection-specific and primary DNS
suffix are ignored.
Reference:
Deborah Littlejohn Shinder, Dr. Thomas W. Shinder, Chad Todd and Laura Hunter,
Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Network
Infrastructure Guide & DVD Training System, p. 515


QUESTION 13:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows 2000 Professional. Certkingdom.com has headquarters in
London and branch offices in Paris, Berlin, Milan, Madrid, Stockholm, Warsaw,
Minsk, and Athens. Each branch office has a server that provides DHCP Server
services and between two to twenty client computers. A client computer in each
branch office is configured with a shared dial-up connection. You work at
headquarters.
The Berlin branch office has only two client computers named Certkingdom -WS291
and Certkingdom -WS292. A Certkingdom.com user named Kara Lang works in the
Berlin office. One morning Kara Lang complains that the shared dial-up connection
on Certkingdom -WS291 is no longer working.
Your investigation reveals that Certkingdom -WS292 can connect to shared folders
on Certkingdom -WS291 and that Certkingdom -WS291 can connect to the network at
headquarters. However, Certkingdom -WS292 cannot connect to resources on the
network at headquarters.
What should you do to ensure that both Certkingdom -WS291 and
Certkingdom -WS292 can connect to resources on the network at headquarters?

A. Reconfigure Internet Connection Sharing on Certkingdom -WS291.
B. Configure the shared dial-up connection on Certkingdom -WS291 so that automatic
dialog is enabled.
C. Configure Certkingdom -WS292 to receive an IP lease from a DHCP server.
D. Configure Certkingdom -WS292 to use Certkingdom -WS291 for DNS name resolution.

Answer: C.

Explaination: The problem is most likely caused by an incorrect or non-existent
default gateway setting on Certkingdom -WS292. If you configure
Certkingdom -WS292 to use DHCP to obtain IP addressing information,
Certkingdom -WS292 will receive the correct settings from the ICS service on
Certkingdom -WS291.
Incorrect Answers:
A: The question refers to a shared dial-up connection on Certkingdom -WS291 not
working. If the dial-up connection is shared, then Internet Connection Sharing is enabled
already.
B: The question states that Certkingdom -WS291 automatically connects to the network at
the main office whenever the user on Certkingdom -WS291 attempts to access resources
located on the main office network. This indicates that automatic dial-up is already
configured.
D: Certkingdom -WS291 is not a DNS server. The ICS service has a DNS proxy that
would pass DNS requests to whichever DNS server Certkingdom -WS291 is using.
Reference:
J. C. Mackin, Ian McLean, MCSA/MCSE Self-Paced Training Kit (exam 70-291):
Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 network
Infrastructure, Part 1, Chapters 1 & 2, pp. 45, 124


QUESTION 14:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and all client
computers run Windows NT Workstation 4.0. The network contains 2,500 client
computers that are configured with static IP addresses.
Certkingdom.com issues a new network policy that requires all network computers to
have dynamically assigned IP configurations. You enable the DHCP Server service
on a member server named Certkingdom -SR25. Three network support technicians
have been instructed to configure the IP properties on all client computers to
receive a DHCP lease from Certkingdom -SR25.
It is estimated that the change over will take two weeks to complete. You need to
ensure that the DHCP server will not lease an IP address that is statically
configured on a computer that the network support technicians have not yet seen to.
What should you do?

A. On Certkingdom -SR25, configure Conflict detection attempts to 1.
B. On Certkingdom -SR25, configure Conflict detection attempts to 3.
C. On Certkingdom -SR25, configure client reservations for each client computer’s MAC
address.
D. On Certkingdom -SR25, activate and reconcile the scopes.

Answer: A

Explaination: When conflict detection attempts are set, the DHCP server uses the
Packet Internet Groper (ping) process to test available scope IP addresses before
including these addresses in DHCP lease offers to clients. A successful ping means
that the IP address is in use on the network. This results in the DHCP server not
offering to lease the address to a client.
If the ping request fails and times out, it indicates that the IP address is not in use on the
network. In this case, the DHCP server offers to lease the address to a client. Each
additional conflict detection attempt delays the DHCP server response by a second while
waiting for the ping request to time out. This in turn increases the load on the server. A
value of no greater than two (2) is recommended for ping attempts.
Incorrect Answers:
B: Due to the latency involved in ping attempts, the higher the conflict detection value is
set, the longer the lease process will be for every client that uses the DHCP server.
C: Configuring client reservations for each client computer MAC address will involve a
physical visit to each and every client computer if you do not ping it successfully.
D: The scope would already be activated in this scenario.
Reference:
Deborah Littlejohn Shinder, Dr. Thomas W. Shinder, Chad Todd and Laura Hunter,
Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Network
Infrastructure Guide & DVD Training System, pp. 208-209


QUESTION 15:

You work as the network administrator at Certkingdom.com The Certkingdom.com
network consists of a single Active Directory domain named Certkingdom.com All
servers on the Certkingdom.com network run Windows Server 2003 and client
computers run Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 Professional, or Windows
NT Workstation. All client computers are configured with default settings.
The Certkingdom.com network contains a server named Certkingdom -SR31 that
functions as a DHCP and DNS server, and a server named Certkingdom -SR38 that
contains antivirus server software. All DNS zones on Certkingdom -SR31 are enabled
for DNS dynamic updates. The computer account for each client computer is the
owner of its own DNS host record. No other server provides DNS services.
What must you do to ensure that Certkingdom -SR38 can contact client computers by
using fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) to propagate virus definition updates?

A. On Certkingdom -SR31, modify the Dynamically update DNS A and PTR records only
if requested by the DHCP clients option.
B. On Certkingdom -SR38, modify the Always dynamically update DNS A and PTR
records option.
C. On Certkingdom -SR31, modify the Discard A and PTR records when lease is deleted
option.
D. On Certkingdom -SR31, modify the Dynamically update DNS A and PTR records for
DHCP clients that do not request dynamic updates (for example, clients running
Windows NT 4.0) option.

Answer: D

Explaination: Dynamically Update DNS A And PTR Records For DHCP Clients That
Do Not Request
Updates – This checkbox lets you handle these older clients graciously by making the
updates using a separate mechanism. When checking this check box you will ensure that
Certkingdom -SR38can resolve FQDNs for all client computers on the network under the
given circumstances and the role that Certkingdom -SR31 plays.
Incorrect Answers:
A: Dynamically Update DNS A And PTR Records Only If Requested By The DHCP
Clients – This radio button (which is on by default) tells the DHCP server to register the
update only if the DHCP client asks for DNS registration. When this button is active,
DHCP clients that aren’t hip to DDNS won’t have their DNS records updated. However,
Windows 2000, XP, and Server 2003 DHCP clients are smart enough to ask for the
updates.
B: Always Dynamically Update DNS A And PTR Records – This radio button forces the
DHCP server to register any client to which it issues a lease. This setting may add DNS
registrations for DHCP-enabled devices that don’t really need them, like printer servers;
however, it allows other clients (like Mac OS, Windows NT, and Linux machines) to
have their DNS information automatically updated. This is not what is required.
C: Discard A And PTR Records When Lease Is Deleted – When a DHCP lease expires,
what should happen to the DNS registration? Obviously, it would be nice if the DNS
record associated with a lease vanished when the lease expired; when this checkbox is
checked (as it is by default), that’s exactly what happens. If you uncheck this box, your
DNS will contain entries for expired leases that are no longer valid; when a particular IP
address is reissued on a new lease, the DNS will be updated, but in between leases you’ll
have incorrect data in your DNS-always something to avoid.
Reference:
James Chellis, Paul Robichaux and Matthew Sheltz, MCSA/MCSE: Windows Server
2003 Network Infrastructure Implementation, Management, and Maintenance Study
Guide, p. 246


 

 

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Microsoft building Kinect device for Windows PCs

Microsoft will build a Kinect device specifically for use with PCs, as the company prepares to launch a program to support commercial products developed for Kinect and Windows.

 

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Kinect is the motion and voice technology that Microsoft first introduced as an add-on to the Xbox. Gamers with Kinect play games by moving their bodies, rather than pushing buttons on a controller.

In a recent video, Microsoft showed some possible applications for Kinect with Windows, including people playing musical instruments by moving their hands in the air; a surgeon flipping through X-ray images without touching the screen; a teacher controlling a display of the night sky by moving his arms; and a technician remotely controlling a robot that defuses a bomb.

Earlier this year, Microsoft released a software development kit to let developers build applications on Windows that make use of the Kinect sensor. The Kinect device Microsoft will build for PCs has a few adjustments that should make it better suited for use with computers.

“Of particular interest to developers will be the new firmware which enables the depth camera to see objects as close as 50 centimeters in front of the device without losing accuracy or precision, with graceful degradation down to 40 centimeters,” Craig Eisler, general manager of Kinect for Windows, wrote in a blog post.

This “near mode” will be more suitable for someone sitting at a computer, as opposed to standing in front of a TV. It’s been one of the most requested features from developers already working on products, Eisler said. The new hardware will also have a shorter USB cable for connecting to computers.

When Microsoft first released the SDK for Kinect for Windows, it limited developers to non-commercial use only, saying it would release a commercial package in the future. It recently promised to launch that program early next year.

Some developers may be worried about how much to invest in their products without knowing more about the commercial program. Eisler wrote that users have said they want assurance of support and continued innovation from Microsoft. He hinted that the commercial program will give licensed customers access to ongoing updates in speech and human tracking technology as well as full support for Kinect hardware for Windows.

Microsoft recently announced an incubator program for getting startups with Kinect ideas off the ground. A Microsoft spokesperson said that Kinect for Windows will be commercially available prior to the incubation phase of Kinect Accelerator. Microsoft is accepting applications through Jan. 25 and the program will start in March.

Court rules that HP’s Hurd probe document can remain secret

A document tied to an internal Hewlett-Packard sexual harassment investigation of former CEO Mark Hurd will remain sealed, according to a ruling handed down this week by the Delaware Supreme Court.

HP shareholder Ernesto Espinoza had filed a lawsuit seeking to inspect the document, which was prepared by the law firm Covington and Burling on HP’s behalf.

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The Delaware Chancery Court had already ruled against Espinoza on grounds his need to see the document wasn’t sufficient enough to override “attorney-client privilege and work product immunity protections,” the state supreme court said in its ruling, which was handed down Monday. “We affirm, but on the alternative ground that Espinoza has not shown that the Covington Report is essential to his stated purpose, which is to investigate possible corporate wrongdoing.”

Hurd resigned from HP in August 2010 and also reached a confidential settlement with a former HP contractor, Jodie Fisher. Shortly thereafter, he took a job as co-president of Oracle.

Although the internal HP investigation did not conclude Hurd was guilty of sexually harassing Fisher, it found he had broken HP’s business conduct standards and uncovered a “systematic” series of inaccurate expense reports meant to cover up his relationship with her, the ruling added.

Hurd received a lucrative severance package from HP. Espinoza had argued that if HP’s board had reason to fire Hurd “for cause,” then the payments shouldn’t have been made, the court said.

Shaping the Cloud

HP Labs research explores how next-generation cloud systems might be built

It’s not easy to shape a cloud. That goes for cloud computing systems as much as the atmospheric phenomena for which they’re named.

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But as cloud computing becomes ever more central to IT operations, how these intentionally diffuse systems are assembled will have an increasingly significant impact on what they’re able to do and how well they can run.

That’s the thinking at HP’s Cloud and Security Lab in Bristol, UK, where a novel approach to cloud computing, based on highly secure but flexibly managed cells, is being researched.

“It’s based on a completely new kind of architecture,” says Julio Guijarro of the model that he and his colleagues are calling Cells as a Service. “The vision we had required a lot of componentry that didn’t exist,” he adds, “so we had to build all that first in order to make it work.”

A new model

The Cells as a Service model grew out of work the Bristol team has been engaged in for over a decade.

Early investigations into Utility and Grid computing led them to want to build their own platform for deploying cloud-based services, says Guijarro. “That was generating a lot of interest among HP customers,” he recalls, “but nobody was providing the infrastructure that we also needed to build such a platform. So we went down a level and started working on that.”

Much of their early research had involved supplying digital animation companies with remote rendering services, an experience that underlined the degree to which IT customers need to be confident that they are protecting their intellectual property if they’re to migrate to lower-cost, cloud based systems.

As a result, explains fellow researcher Patrick Goldsack, “when we started to think about architecture, we started by asking how you can really provide a secure framework from the ground up, within which we can then deliver different services to different customers.”

A truly secure system, notes Goldsack, ought to be able to serve commercial rivals like Dreamworks and Pixar, or Pepsi and Coca Cola, at the same time, with each 100% confident that their own data is accessible only to themselves. At that same time, though, it should also allow them to collaborate if and when they wish. Banks, for example, might be rivals in some operations and partners in others.

For that to happen, adds Guijarro, “You have to build into the design the ability for A to talk to B when they want to, and for B to talk to A. That’s one of the main differentiators between our system and anything else that is out there today.”

Cells in two senses

The new infrastructure, like other cloud systems, is built out of virtualized machines created automatically and on the fly over sets geographically-distributed servers.

But in this model the virtualized servers have the quality of cells – both in the sense of biological building blocks and of highly secure holding pens for information.

“Each cell has a semi permeable membrane with a tight control over that permeability,” notes Goldsack. “As a result, you can specify your relationship with other cells in the system and the level of permeability you have between the various other cells. In addition, you can alter those levels later on if you wish.”

Existing cloud models typically serve multiple users by requiring that every user own the same kind of rights over the same kind of machines. But thanks to its novel design, the Cells as a Service model offers much more flexibility while at the same time offering the kind of security that cloud customers need.

Underlying innovations

In order to build this new architecture, the HP team had to create an array of underlying technologies that were themselves novel.

“The networking is completely new,” explains Guijarro. “It doesn’t require any special switches or anything. Instead, we virtualized the entire network in software, which gives us a strong control of what happens in the network layer.”

In addition, the Labs team reinvented how virtual disks connect up to virtual machines.

Traditionally, when you create a virtual machine, you create a virtual disk from which it will boot that contains a certain amount of data. It’s possible to create a virtual machine very fast, but as virtual disks have become ever larger they’ve been taking ever longer – over an hour sometimes – to create and copy from a base image.

“We get the performance up using a number of techniques such as copy-on-write and clever caching algorithms,” says Goldsack. “We can do per-volume encryption, and impose access control to the volumes. It’s an entirely new approach to virtual storage appropriate to the cloud.”

A third major innovation is in how the virtualization process is automated. “It’s a very highly distributed, disaggregated asynchronous mechanism, which scales out very beautifully,” Goldsack reports.

A popular demonstrator

The Cells as a Service model has recently been integrated into HP’s G-Cloud demonstrator at HPL Bristol. Now one year old and in its second generation, the demonstrator was built to offer governments a sense of how cloud computing might help them deliver core services much more cost-effectively and efficiently.

Interest so far has been ‘amazing,’ says Goldsack, who notes that corporations are proving as interested as government agencies in sending their senior technology executives to visit.

The tours, he notes, “allow us to share our vision of what Cloud can do for you, what the issues are that you might think about and how we are approaching some of those issues like security, privacy, speed, reliability and high availability.”

At the same time, the visitors help the HP team understand the concerns that potential customers have about the cloud and where they are in the process of moving their services into the cloud environment.

Back to the platform

Next the team wants to move back up the software hierarchy to where they started originally: to look at the kinds of platforms they can build on a Cells as a Service infrastructure.

“That’s really where our interest has always been,” notes Goldsack. “And we’ll likely start doing some work with the client side, too, looking at better ways to bring clients into the cloud.”

After that, they’ll likely create model software solutions to show off the unique capabilities of the Cells as a Service infrastructure.

“This is just the beginning,” suggests Guijarro, “and I don’t think anybody knows where this is going to go.” All along, he notes, the idea has been to give people confidence to move more to the cloud – a move that ought, in turn, to let them to be more innovative in the services they offer.

“It’s one of the most interesting aspects of the research that we do,” he says, “that we’re enabling people to do things that nobody has thought of yet.

Free Microsoft 70-536 Q & A / Study Guide


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QUESTION 1
You work as the application developer at CertKingdom.com. CertKingdom.com uses Visual Studio.NET
2005 as its application development platform.
You are in the process of storing numerical values up to 2,100,000,000 into a variable and may
require storing negative values using a .NET Framework 2.0 application. You are required to
optimize memory usage
What should you do?

A. Int32
B. UInt16
C. UInt32
D. Int16

Answer: A

Explanation:
The Int32 type should be used in the scenario as it can be used to store positive and negative
numerical values from -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647.
Incorrect Answers:
B: The UINT32 and UInt16 type should not be used in the scenario because they are used to store
only unsigned positive numbers.
Reference types
C: The UINT32 and UInt16 type should not be used in the scenario because they are used to store
only unsigned positive numbers.
Attributes
D: The Int16 type should not be used as you will only be allowed to store values from -32768 to
+32768.


QUESTION 2
You work as an application developer at CertKingdom.com. You are currently in the process of
creating a class that stores data about CertKingdom.com’s customers.
CertKingdom.com customers are assigned unique identifiers and various characteristics that may
include aliases, shipping instructions, and sales comments. These characteristics can change in
both size and data type.
You start by defining the Customer class as shown below:
public class Customer
{
private int custID;
private ArrayList attributes;
public int CustomerID
{
get {return custID;}
}
public Customer (int CustomerID)
{
this.custID = CustomerID;
this.attributes = new ArrayList ();
}
public void AddAttribute (object att)
{
attributes.Add (att);
}
}
You have to create the FindAttribute method for locating attributes in Customer objects no matter
what the data type is.
You need to ensure that the FindAttribute method returns the attribute if found, and you also need
to ensure type-safety when returning the attribute.
What should you do?

A. Use the following code to declare the FindAttribute method:
public T FindAttribute (T att)
{
//Find attribute and return the value
}
B. Use the following code to declare the FindAttribute method:
public object FindAttribute (object att)
{
//Find attribute and return the value
}
C. Use the following code to declare the FindAttribute method:
public T FindAttribute <T> (T att)
{
//Find attribute and return the value
}
D. Use the following code to declare the FindAttribute method:
public string FindAttribute (string att)
{
//Find attribute and return the value
}

Answer: C

Explanation:
This code declares the method FindAttribute and specifies an argument named att using the T
placeholder as the argument and return data type. To ensure the FindAttribute method accepts
arguments of different types, you should specify an argument using a generic placeholder. The
argument att in this generic method will accept any valid data type and ensures type-safety by
returning that same data type.
Incorrect Answers:
A: You should not use this code because it does not declare the placeholder T. when declaring a
generic method, you have to use the < > bracketsto declare the place holder before using it.
B: You should not use this code because it does not guarantee type-safery.
D: You should not use this code because it will only accept a string argument and return a string
argument.
Generic types


QUESTION 3
You work as an application developer at CertKingdom.com. You are creating a custom exception
class named ProductDoesNotExistException so that custom exception messages are displayed in
a new application when the product specified by users is unavailable.
This custom exception class will take the ProductID as an argument to its constructor and expose
this value through the ProductID. You are now in the process of creating a method named
UpdateProduct. This method will be used to generate and manage the
ProductDoesNotExistException exception if the ProductID variable contains the value 0.
You need to ensure that use the appropriate code for the UpdateProduct method.
What should you do?

A. Make use of the following code:
public void UpdateProduct ()
{
try
{
if (ProductID == 0)
throw new ProductDoesNotExistException (ProductID);
}
catch (ProductDoesNotExistException ex)
{
MessageBox.Show (“There is no Product” + ex. ProductID);
}
}
B. Make use of the following code:
public void UpdateProduct ()
{
try
{
if (ProductID = = 0)
throw new Exception (“Invalid ProductID”);
}
catch (ProductDoesNotExistException ex)
{
MessageBox.Show (ex.Message);
}
}
C. Make use of the following code:
public void UpdateProduct ()
{
if (ProductID = = 0)
throw new ProductDoesNotExistException (ProductID);
}
D. Make use of the following code:
public void UpdateProduct ()
{
if (ProductID = = 0)
throw new Exception (“Invalid ProductID”);
}

Answer: A

Explanation:
This code verifies the value of the ProductID variable by using the if statement. If the ProductID
variable contains a value of 0, this code generates an exception of type
ProductDoesNotExistException . To explicitly generate an exception, you are required to use the
throw statement. The exception generated by using the throw statement can be handled by the
try…catch block. This code generates the custom exception by calling the constructor of the
custom exception class named ProductDoesNotExistException . The constructor argument is the
ProductID attached to the ProductDoesNotExistException object. This code then handles the
custom exception named ProductDoesNotExistException by using a catch block, which handles
exceptions by using a variable named ex of the type ProductDoesNotExistException . This code
displays the ” There is no Product ” error message by using the MessageBox.Show method and
concatenating the ex. ProductID to it.
Incorrect Answers:
B: You should not use the code that generates an exception of the type Exception and handles the
exception of the type ProductDoesNotExistException in the catch block. This code is incorrect
because you are required to generate a custom exception named ProductDoesNotExistException.
C: You should not use the codes that do not use a try…catch block because the application an
unhandled exception.
D: You should not use the codes that do not use a try…catch block because the application an
unhandled exception.


QUESTION 4
You work as the application developer at CertKingdom.com. CertKingdom.com uses Visual Studio.NET
2005 as its application development platform.
You have recently finished development of a class named TestReward and package the class in a
.NET 2.0 assembly named TestObj.dll. After you ship the assembly and it is used by client
applications, you decide to move the TestReward class from TestObj.dll assembly to the
TestRewardObj.dll Assembly. You are to ensure when you ship the updated TestObj.dll and
TestRewardObj.dll assemblies that the client applications continue to work and do not require
recompiling.
What should you do?

A. The TypeForwardedTo attribute should be used
B. The TypeConvertor.ConvertTo method should be used
C. The InternalsVisibleTo attribute should be used
D. The Type Convertor.ConvertFrom method should be used

Answer: A

Explanation:
The statement used for you to add a type from one assembly into another assembly is the
TypeForwardTo attribute which enables you not to have the application recompiled.
Incorrect Answers:
B: The TypeConverter class provides a unified way of converting different types of values to other
types and can not be used to move a type.
C: The method in question here specifies all nonpublic types in an assembly are visible to other
assemblies but can not be used to move types.Part 2: Manage a group of associated data in a
.NET Framework application by using collections. (Refer System.Collections namespace)
D: The TypeConverter class provides a unified way of converting different types of values to other
types and can not be used to move a type.


QUESTION 5
You work as an application developer at CertKingdom.com. You have recently created a custom
collection class named ShoppingList for a local supermarket. This custom class will include
ShoppinItem objects that have the public properties listed below.
* Name
* AisleNumber
* OnDiscount
You are required to enable users of your class to iterate through the ShoppingList collection, and
to list each product name and aisle number using the foreach statement.
You need to achieve this by declaring the appropriate code.
What code should you use?

A. public class ShoppingList : ICollection
{
// Class implementation
}
B. public class ShoppingList : IEnumerator, IEnumerable
{
// Class implementation
}
C. public class ShoppingList : Ilist
{
// Class implementation
}
D. public class ShoppingList : Enum
{
// Class implementation
}

Answer: B

Explanation:
You should implement the IEnumerable and IEnumerator interfaces of the System.Collections
namespace to ensure that your collection class supports foreach iteration. The IEnumerable
interface defines only one method named GetEnumerator that returns an object of type
IEnumerator of the System.Collections namespace and is used to support iteration over a
collection. The IEnumerator interface supports methods, such as Current , MoveNext , and Reset
to iterate through a collection. The Current method returns the current element of the collection.
The Move method positions the enumerator to the next available element of the collection. The
Reset method positions the enumerator before the first element of the collection.
Incorrect Answers:
A: You should not use the code that implements the ICollection interface because this interface is
used to define properties in a collection. Implementing this interface will not ensure that your
collection class supports foreach iteration because it does not inherit the IEnumerator interface.
C: You should not use the code that implements the Ilist interface because this interface is used to
define properties of a non-generic list of items accessed by index. Implementing this interface will
not ensure that your collection class supports foreach iteration because it does not inherit the
IEnumerator interface.
D: You should not use the code that inherits the Enum because this structure is used as a base
class for those classes that provide enumeration values. Inheriting the Enum structure will not
ensure that your collection class supports foreach iteration.

 

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Court rules that HP’s Hurd probe document can remain secret

A document tied to an internal Hewlett-Packard sexual harassment investigation of former CEO Mark Hurd will remain sealed, according to a ruling handed down this week by the Delaware Supreme Court.

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HP shareholder Ernesto Espinoza had filed a lawsuit seeking to inspect the document, which was prepared by the law firm Covington and Burling on HP’s behalf.

The Delaware Chancery Court had already ruled against Espinoza on grounds his need to see the document wasn’t sufficient enough to override “attorney-client privilege and work product immunity protections,” the state supreme court said in its ruling, which was handed down Monday. “We affirm, but on the alternative ground that Espinoza has not shown that the Covington Report is essential to his stated purpose, which is to investigate possible corporate wrongdoing.”

Hurd resigned from HP in August 2010 and also reached a confidential settlement with a former HP contractor, Jodie Fisher. Shortly thereafter, he took a job as co-president of Oracle.

Although the internal HP investigation did not conclude Hurd was guilty of sexually harassing Fisher, it found he had broken HP’s business conduct standards and uncovered a “systematic” series of inaccurate expense reports meant to cover up his relationship with her, the ruling added.

Hurd received a lucrative severance package from HP. Espinoza had argued that if HP’s board had reason to fire Hurd “for cause,” then the payments shouldn’t have been made, the court said.