Category Archives: Cisco

200-125 CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Exam

Exam Number 200-125 CCNA
Associated Certifications CCNA Routing and Switching
Duration 90 Minutes (50-60 questions)
Available Languages English, Japanese

This exam tests a candidate’s knowledge and skills related to network fundamentals, LAN switching technologies, IPv4 and IPv6 routing technologies, WAN technologies, infrastructure services, infrastructure security, and infrastructure management.

The Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Routing and Switching composite exam (200-125) is a 90-minute, 50–60 question assessment that is associated with the CCNA Routing and Switching certification. This exam tests a candidate’s knowledge and skills related to network fundamentals, LAN switching technologies, IPv4 and IPv6 routing technologies, WAN technologies, infrastructure services, infrastructure security, and infrastructure management.

The following topics are general guidelines for the content likely to be included on the exam. However, other related topics may also appear on any specific delivery of the exam. In order to better reflect the contents of the exam and for clarity purposes, the guidelines below may change at any time without notice.

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1.0 Network Fundamentals 15%

1.1 Compare and contrast OSI and TCP/IP models

1.2 Compare and contrast TCP and UDP protocols

1.3 Describe the impact of infrastructure components in an enterprise network

1.3.a Firewalls
1.3.b Access points
1.3.c Wireless controllers

1.4 Describe the effects of cloud resources on enterprise network architecture

1.4.a Traffic path to internal and external cloud services
1.4.b Virtual services
1.4.c Basic virtual network infrastructure

1.5 Compare and contrast collapsed core and three-tier architectures

1.6 Compare and contrast network topologies

1.6.a Star
1.6.b Mesh
1.6.c Hybrid

1.7 Select the appropriate cabling type based on implementation requirements

1.8 Apply troubleshooting methodologies to resolve problems

1.8.a Perform and document fault isolation
1.8.b Resolve or escalate
1.8.c Verify and monitor resolution

1.9 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting

1.10 Compare and contrast IPv4 address types

1.10.a Unicast
1.10.b Broadcast
1.10.c Multicast

1.11 Describe the need for private IPv4 addressing

1.12 Identify the appropriate IPv6 addressing scheme to satisfy addressing requirements in a LAN/WAN environment

1.13 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv6 addressing

1.14 Configure and verify IPv6 Stateless Address Auto Configuration

1.15 Compare and contrast IPv6 address types

1.15.a Global unicast
1.15.b Unique local
1.15.c Link local
1.15.d Multicast
1.15.e Modified EUI 64
1.15.f Autoconfiguration
1.15.g Anycast

2.0 LAN Switching Technologies 21%

2.1 Describe and verify switching concepts

2.1.a MAC learning and aging
2.1.b Frame switching
2.1.c Frame flooding
2.1.d MAC address table

2.2 Interpret Ethernet frame format

2.3 Troubleshoot interface and cable issues (collisions, errors, duplex, speed)

2.4 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VLANs (normal/extended range) spanning multiple switches

2.4.a Access ports (data and voice)
2.4.b Default VLAN

2.5 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot interswitch connectivity

2.5.a Trunk ports
2.5.b Add and remove VLANs on a trunk
2.5.c DTP, VTP (v1&v2), and 802.1Q
2.5.d Native VLAN

2.6 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot STP protocols

2.6.a STP mode (PVST+ and RPVST+)
2.6.b STP root bridge selection

2.7 Configure, verify and troubleshoot STP related optional features

2.7.a PortFast
2.7.b BPDU guard

2.8 Configure and verify Layer 2 protocols

2.8.a Cisco Discovery Protocol
2.8.b LLDP

2.9 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot (Layer 2/Layer 3) EtherChannel

2.9.a Static
2.9.b PAGP
2.9.c LACP

2.10 Describe the benefits of switch stacking and chassis aggregation

3.0 Routing Technologies 23%

3.1 Describe the routing concepts

3.1.a Packet handling along the path through a network
3.1.b Forwarding decision based on route lookup
3.1.c Frame rewrite

3.2 Interpret the components of a routing table

3.2.a Prefix
3.2.b Network mask
3.2.c Next hop
3.2.d Routing protocol code
3.2.e Administrative distance
3.2.f Metric
3.2.g Gateway of last resort

3.3 Describe how a routing table is populated by different routing information sources

3.3.a Admin distance

3.4 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot inter-VLAN routing

3.4.a Router on a stick
3.4.b SVI

3.5 Compare and contrast static routing and dynamic routing

3.6 Compare and contrast distance vector and link state routing protocols

3.7 Compare and contrast interior and exterior routing protocols

3.8 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv4 and IPv6 static routing

3.8.a Default route
3.8.b Network route
3.8.c Host route
3.8.d Floating static

3.9 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot single area and multi-area OSPFv2 for IPv4 (excluding authentication, filtering, manual summarization, redistribution, stub, virtual-link, and LSAs)

3.10 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot single area and multi-area OSPFv3 for IPv6 (excluding authentication, filtering, manual summarization, redistribution, stub, virtual-link, and LSAs)

3.11 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot EIGRP for IPv4 (excluding authentication, filtering, manual summarization, redistribution, stub)

3.12 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot EIGRP for IPv6 (excluding authentication, filtering, manual summarization, redistribution, stub)

3.13 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RIPv2 for IPv4 (excluding authentication, filtering, manual summarization, redistribution)

3.14 Troubleshoot basic Layer 3 end-to-end connectivity issues

4.0 WAN Technologies 10%

4.1 Configure and verify PPP and MLPPP on WAN interfaces using local authentication

4.2 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot PPPoE client-side interfaces using local authentication

4.3 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot GRE tunnel connectivity

4.4 Describe WAN topology options

4.4.a Point-to-point
4.4.b Hub and spoke
4.4.c Full mesh
4.4.d Single vs dual-homed

4.5 Describe WAN access connectivity options

4.5.a MPLS
4.5.b Metro Ethernet
4.5.c Broadband PPPoE
4.5.d Internet VPN (DMVPN, site-to-site VPN, client VPN)

4.6 Configure and verify single-homed branch connectivity using eBGP IPv4 (limited to peering and route advertisement using Network command only)

4.7 Describe basic QoS concepts

4.7.a Marking
4.7.b Device trust
4.7.c Prioritization
4.7.c. [i] Voice
4.7.c. [ii] Video
4.7.c. [iii] Data
4.7.d Shaping
4.7.e Policing
4.7.f Congestion management

5.0 Infrastructure Services 10%

5.1 Describe DNS lookup operation

5.2 Troubleshoot client connectivity issues involving DNS

5.3 Configure and verify DHCP on a router (excluding static reservations)

5.3.a Server
5.3.b Relay
5.3.c Client
5.3.d TFTP, DNS, and gateway options

5.4 Troubleshoot client- and router-based DHCP connectivity issues

5.5 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic HSRP

5.5.a Priority
5.5.b Preemption
5.5.c Version

5.6 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot inside source NAT

5.6.a Static
5.6.b Pool
5.6.c PAT

5.7 Configure and verify NTP operating in a client/server mode

6.0 Infrastructure Security 11%

6.1 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot port security

6.1.a Static
6.1.b Dynamic
6.1.c Sticky
6.1.d Max MAC addresses
6.1.e Violation actions
6.1.f Err-disable recovery

6.2 Describe common access layer threat mitigation techniques

6.2.a 802.1x
6.2.b DHCP snooping
6.2.c Nondefault native VLAN

6.3 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv4 and IPv6 access list for traffic filtering

6.3.a Standard
6.3.b Extended
6.3.c Named

6.4 Verify ACLs using the APIC-EM Path Trace ACL analysis tool

6.5 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic device hardening

6.5.a Local authentication
6.5.b Secure password
6.5.c Access to device
6.5.c. [i] Source address
6.5.c. [ii] Telnet/SSH
6.5.d Login banner

6.6 Describe device security using AAA with TACACS+ and RADIUS

7.0 Infrastructure Management 10%

7.1 Configure and verify device-monitoring protocols

7.1.a SNMPv2
7.1.b SNMPv3
7.1.c Syslog

7.2 Troubleshoot network connectivity issues using ICMP echo-based IP SLA

7.3 Configure and verify device management

7.3.a Backup and restore device configuration
7.3.b Using Cisco Discovery Protocol or LLDP for device discovery
7.3.c Licensing
7.3.d Logging
7.3.e Timezone
7.3.f Loopback

7.4 Configure and verify initial device configuration

7.5 Perform device maintenance

7.5.a Cisco IOS upgrades and recovery (SCP, FTP, TFTP, and MD5 verify)
7.5.b Password recovery and configuration register
7.5.c File system management

7.6 Use Cisco IOS tools to troubleshoot and resolve problems

7.6.a Ping and traceroute with extended option
7.6.b Terminal monitor
7.6.c Log events
7.6.d Local SPAN

7.7 Describe network programmability in enterprise network architecture

7.7.a Function of a controller
7.7.b Separation of control plane and data plane
7.7.c Northbound and southbound APIs
QUESTION: No: 1
Which layer in the OSI reference model is responsible for determining the availability of the receMng
program and checking to see if enough resources exist for that communication?

A. transport
B. network
C. presentation
D. session
E. application

Answer: E


QUESTION: No: 2
Which of the following describes the roles of devices in a WAN? (Choose three.)

A. A CSU/DSU terminates a digital local loop.
B. A modem terminates a digital local loop.
C. A CSU/DSU terminates an analog local loop.
D. A modem terminates an analog local loop.
E. A router is commonly considered a DTE device.
F. A router is commonly considered a DCE device.

Answer: A, D, E


QUESTION: No: 3
A network interface port has collision detection and carrier sensing enabled on a shared twisted pair
network. From this statement, what is known about the network interface port?

A. This is a 10 Mb/s switch port.
B. This is a 100 Mb/s switch port.
C. This is an Ethernet port operating at half duplex.
D. This is an Ethernet port operating at full duplex.
E. This is a port on a network interface card in a PC.

Answer: C


QUESTION: No: 4
A receMng host computes the checksum on a frame and determines that the frame is damaged. The
frame is then discarded. At which OSI layer did this happen?

A. session
B. transport
C. network
D. data link
E. physical

Answer: D


QUESTION: No: 5
Which of the following correctly describe steps in the OSI data encapsulation process? (Choose two.)

A. The transport layer dMdes a data stream into segments and may add reliability and flow control
information.
B. The data link layer adds physical source and destination addresses and an FCS to the segment.
C. Packets are created when the network layer encapsulates a frame with source and destination host
addresses and protocol-related control information.
D. Packets are created when the network layer adds Layer 3 addresses and control information to a
segment.
E. The presentation layer translates bits into voltages for transmission across the physical link.

Answer: A, D

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400-251 CCIE Security

Exam Number 400-251 CCIE Security
Associated Certifications CCIE Security
Duration 120 minutes (90 – 110 questions)
Available Languages English

The written exam validates experts who have the knowledge and skills to architect, engineer, implement, troubleshoot, and support the full suite of Cisco security technologies and solutions using the latest industry best practices to secure systems and environments against modern security risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and requirements.

Topics include network functionality and security-related concepts and best practices, as well as Cisco network security products, solutions, and technologies in areas such as next generation intrusion prevention, next generation firewalls, identity services, policy management, device hardening, and malware protection.

The written exam utilizes the unified exam topics which includes emerging technologies, such as Cloud, Network Programmability (SDN), and Internet of Things (IoT).

The CCIE Security Version 5.0 exam unifies written and lab exam topics documents into a unique curriculum, while explicitly disclosing which domains pertain to which exam, and the relative weight of each domain.

The Cisco CCIE Security Written Exam (400-251) version 5.0 is a two-hour test with 90–110 questions that validate professionals who have the expertise to describe, design, implement, operate, and troubleshoot complex security technologies and solutions. Candidates must understand the requirements of network security, how different components interoperate, and translate it into the device configurations. The exam is closed book and no outside reference materials are allowed.

The Cisco CCIE Security Lab Exam version 5.0 is an eight-hour, hands-on exam that requires a candidate to plan, design, implement, operate, and troubleshoot complex security scenarios for a given specification. Knowledge of troubleshooting is an important skill and candidates are expected to diagnose and solve issues as part of the CCIE lab exam.

The following topics are general guidelines for the content likely to be included on the exam. However, other related topics may also appear on any specific delivery of the exam. In order to better reflect the contents of the exam and for clarity purposes, the guidelines below may change at any time without notice.

1.0 Perimeter Security and Intrusion Prevention 21%

1.1 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot HA features on Cisco ASA and Cisco FirePOWER Threat Defense (FTD)

1.2 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot clustering on Cisco ASA and Cisco FTD

1.3 Describe, implement, troubleshoot, and secure routing protocols on Cisco ASA and Cisco FTD

1.4 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot different deployment modes such as routed, transparent, single, and multicontext on Cisco ASA and Cisco FTD

1.5 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot firewall features such as NAT (v4,v6), PAT, application inspection, traffic zones, policy-based routing, traffic redirection to service modules, and identity firewall on Cisco ASA and Cisco FTD

1.6 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot IOS security features such as Zone-Based Firewall (ZBF), application layer inspection, NAT (v4,v6), PAT and TCP intercept on Cisco IOS/IOS-XE

1.7 Describe, implement, optimize, and troubleshoot policies and rules for traffic control on Cisco ASA, Cisco FirePOWER and Cisco FTD

1.8 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot Cisco Firepower Management Center (FMC) features such as alerting, logging, and reporting

1.9 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot correlation and remediation rules on Cisco FMC

1.10 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot Cisco FirePOWER and Cisco FTD deployment such as in-line, passive, and TAP modes

1.11 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot Next Generation Firewall (NGFW) features such as SSL inspection, user identity, geolocation, and AVC (Firepower appliance)

1.12 Describe, detect, and mitigate common types of attacks such as DoS/DDoS, evasion techniques, spoofing, man-in-the-middle, and botnet

2.0 Advanced Threat Protection and Content Security 17%

2.1 Compare and contrast different AMP solutions including public and private cloud deployment models

2.2 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot AMP for networks, AMP for endpoints, and AMP for content security (CWS, ESA, and WSA)

2.3 Detect, analyze, and mitigate malware incidents

2.4 Describe the benefit of threat intelligence provided by AMP Threat GRID

2.5 Perform packet capture and analysis using Wireshark, tcpdump, SPAN, and RSPAN

2.6 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot web filtering, user identification, and Application Visibility and Control (AVC)

2.7 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot mail policies, DLP, email quarantines, and SenderBase on ESA

2.8 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot SMTP authentication such as SPF and DKIM on ESA

2.9 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot SMTP encryption on ESA

2.10 Compare and contrast different LDAP query types on ESA

2.11 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot WCCP redirection

2.12 Compare and contrast different proxy methods such as SOCKS, Auto proxy/WPAD, and transparent

2.13 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot HTTPS decryption and DLP

2.14 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot CWS connectors on Cisco IOS routers, Cisco ASA, Cisco AnyConnect, and WSA

2.15 Describe the security benefits of leveraging the OpenDNS solution.

2.16 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot SMA for centralized content security management

2.17 Describe the security benefits of leveraging Lancope

3.0 Secure Connectivity and Segmentation 17%

3.1 Compare and contrast cryptographic and hash algorithms such as AES, DES, 3DES, ECC, SHA, and MD5

3.2 Compare and contrast security protocols such as ISAKMP/IKEv1, IKEv2, SSL, TLS/DTLS, ESP, AH, SAP, and MKA

3.3 Describe, implementc and troubleshoot remote access VPN using technologies such as FLEXVPN, SSL-VPN between Cisco firewalls, routers, and end hosts

3.4 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot the Cisco IOS CA for VPN authentication

3.5 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot clientless SSL VPN technologies with DAP and smart tunnels on Cisco ASA and Cisco FTD

3.6 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot site-to-site VPNs such as GETVPN, DMVPN and IPsec

3.7 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot uplink and downlink MACsec (802.1AE)

3.8 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot VPN high availability using Cisco ASA VPN clustering and dual-hub DMVPN deployments

3.9 Describe the functions and security implications of cryptographic protocols such as AES, DES, 3DES, ECC, SHA, MD5, ISAKMP/IKEv1, IKEv2, SSL, TLS/DTLS, ESP, AH, SAP, MKA, RSA, SCEP/EST, GDOI, X.509, WPA, WPA2, WEP, and TKIP

3.10 Describe the security benefits of network segmentation and isolation

3.11 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot VRF-Lite and VRF-Aware VPN

3.12 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot microsegmentation with TrustSec using SGT and SXP

3.13 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot infrastructure segmentation methods such as VLAN, PVLAN, and GRE

3.14 Describe the functionality of Cisco VSG used to secure virtual environments

3.15 Describe the security benefits of data center segmentation using ACI, EVPN, VXLAN, and NVGRE

4.0 Identity Management, Information Exchange, and Access Control 22%

4.1 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot various personas of ISE in a multinode deployment

4.2 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot network access device (NAD), ISE, and ACS configuration for AAA

4.3 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot AAA for administrative access to Cisco network devices using ISE and ACS

4.4 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot AAA for network access with 802.1X and MAB using ISE.

4.5 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot cut-through proxy/auth-proxy using ISE as the AAA server

4.6 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot guest life cycle management using ISE and Cisco network infrastructure

4.7 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot BYOD on-boarding and network access flows with an internal or external CA

4.8 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot ISE and ACS integration with external identity sources such as LDAP, AD, and external RADIUS

4.9 Describe ISE and ACS integration with external identity sources such as RADIUS Token, RSA SecurID, and SAML

4.10 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot provisioning of AnyConnect with ISE and ASA

4.11 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot posture assessment with ISE

4.12 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot endpoint profiling using ISE and Cisco network infrastructure including device sensor

4.13 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot integration of MDM with ISE

4.14 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot certificate based authentication using ISE

4.15 Describe, implement, verify, and troubleshoot authentication methods such as EAP Chaining and Machine Access Restriction (MAR)

4.16 Describe the functions and security implications of AAA protocols such as RADIUS, TACACS+, LDAP/LDAPS, EAP (EAP-PEAP, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-FAST, EAP-TEAP, EAP- MD5, EAP-GTC), PAP, CHAP, and MS-CHAPv2

4.17 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot identity mapping on ASA, ISE, WSA and FirePOWER

4.18 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot pxGrid between security devices such as WSA, ISE, and Cisco FMC

5.0 Infrastructure Security, Virtualization, and Automation 13%

5.1 Identify common attacks such as Smurf, VLAN hopping, and SYNful knock, and their mitigation techniques

5.2 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot device hardening techniques and control plane protection methods, such as CoPP and IP Source routing.

5.3 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot management plane protection techniques such as CPU and memory thresholding and securing device access

5.4 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot data plane protection techniques such as iACLs, uRPF, QoS, and RTBH

5.5 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot IPv4/v6 routing protocols security

5.6 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot Layer 2 security techniques such as DAI, IPDT, STP security, port security, DHCP snooping, and VACL

5.7 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot wireless security technologies such as WPA, WPA2, TKIP, and AES

5.8 Describe wireless security concepts such as FLEX Connect, wIPS, ANCHOR, Rogue AP, and Management Frame Protection (MFP)

5.9 Describe, implement, and troubleshoot monitoring protocols such as NETFLOW/IPFIX, SNMP, SYSLOG, RMON, NSEL, and eSTREAMER

5.10 Describe the functions and security implications of application protocols such as SSH, TELNET, TFTP, HTTP/HTTPS, SCP, SFTP/FTP, PGP, DNS/DNSSEC, NTP, and DHCP

5.11 Describe the functions and security implications of network protocols such as VTP, 802.1Q, TCP/UDP, CDP, LACP/PAgP, BGP, EIGRP, OSPF/OSPFv3, RIP/RIPng, IGMP/CGMP, PIM, IPv6, and WCCP

5.12 Describe the benefits of virtualizing security functions in the data center using ASAv, WSAv, ESAv, and NGIPSv

5.13 Describe the security principles of ACI such as object models, endpoint groups, policy enforcement, application network profiles, and contracts

5.14 Describe the northbound and southbound APIs of SDN controllers such as APIC-EM

5.15 Identify and implement security features to comply with organizational security policies, procedures, and standards such as BCP 38, ISO 27001, RFC 2827, and PCI-DSS

5.16 Describe and identify key threats to different places in the network (campus, data center, core, edge) as described in Cisco SAFE

5.17 Validate network security design for adherence to Cisco SAFE recommended practices

5.18 Interpret basic scripts that can retrieve and send data using RESTful API calls in scripting languages such as Python

5.19 Describe Cisco Digital Network Architecture (DNA) principles and components.

6.0 Evolving Technologies 10%

6.1 Cloud

6.1.a Compare and contrast Cloud deployment models
6.1.a [i] Infrastructure, platform, and software services (XaaS)
6.1.a [ii] Performance and reliability
6.1.a [iii] Security and privacy
6.1.a [iv] Scalability and interoperability
6.1.b Describe Cloud implementations and operations
6.1.b [i] Automation and orchestration
6.1.b [ii] Workload mobility
6.1.b [iii] Troubleshooting and management
6.1.b [iv] OpenStack components

6.2 Network Programmability (SDN)

6.2.a Describe functional elements of network programmability (SDN) and how they interact
6.2.a [i] Controllers
6.2.a [ii] APIs
6.2.a [iii] Scripting
6.2.a [iv] Agents
6.2.a [v] Northbound vs. Southbound protocols
6.2.b Describe aspects of virtualization and automation in network environments
6.2.b [i] DevOps methodologies, tools and workflows
6.2.b [ii] Network/application function virtualization (NFV, AFV)
6.2.b [iii] Service function chaining
6.2.b [iv] Performance, availability, and scaling considerations

6.3 Internet of Things (IoT)

6.3.a Describe architectural framework and deployment considerations for Internet of Things
6.3.a [i] Performance, reliability and scalability
6.3.a [ii] Mobility
6.3.a [iii] Security and privacy
6.3.a [iv] Standards and compliance
6.3.a [v] Migration
6.3.a [vi] Environmental impacts on the network

QUESTION: No: 2
According IS027001 ISIVIS, which of the following are mandatory documents? (Choose 4)

A. ISNIS Policy
B. Corrective Action Procedure
C. IS Procedures
D. Risk Assessment Reports
E. Complete Inventory of all information assets

Answer: A, B, C, D


QUESTION: No: 3
Which two statements describe the Cisco TrustSec system correctly? (Choose two.)

A. The Cisco TrustSec system is a partner program, where Cisco certifies third-party security products as
extensions to the secure infrastructure.
B. The Cisco TrustSec system is an approach to certifying multimedia and collaboration applications as secure.
C. The Cisco TrustSec system is an Advanced Network Access Control System that leverages
enforcement intelligence in the network infrastructure.
D. The Cisco TrustSec system tests and certifies all products and product versions that make up the
system as working together in a validated manner.

Answer: C, D


QUESTION: No: 4
Which three attributes may be configured as part of the Common Tasks panel of an authorization profile in
the Cisco ISE solution? (Choose three.)

A. VLAN
B. voice VLAN
C. dACL name
D. voice domain permission
E. SGT

Answer: A, C, D


QUESTION: No: 5
Which three statements about Cisco Flexible NetFIow are true? (Choose three.)

A. The packet information used to create flows is not configurable by the user.
B. It supports IPv4 and IPv6 packet fields.
C. It tracks all fields of an IPv4 header as well as sections of the data payload.
D. It uses two types of flow cache, normal and permanent.
E. It can be a useful tool in monitoring the network for attacks.

Answer: B, C, E


QUESTION: No: 6
Which three statements are true regarding RFC 5176 (Change of Authorization)? (Choose three.)

A. It defines a mechanism to allow a RADIUS server to initiate a communication inbound to a NAO.
B. It defines a wide variety of authorization actions, including “reauthenticate.”
C. It defines the format for a Change of Authorization packet.
D. It defines a DIVI.
E. It specifies that TCP port 3799 be used for transport of Change of Authorization packets.

Answer: A, C, D

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700-260 Advanced Security Architecture for Account Manager


QUESTION: No: 1
Increased employee productivity, confidence in data confidentiality, and increased visibility are features
that demonstrate which Cisco business value?

A. Cost effectiveness
B. Protection
C. Control
D. Flexibility
E. Completeness

Answer: C


QUESTION: No: 2
Which licensing feature enables customers to better manage their software assets and optimize their IT
spending?

A. Cisco ONE
B. Smart Accounts
C. Enterprise License Agreements
D. License Bundling

Answer: B


QUESTION: No: 3
Which Cisco network security solution helps protect against threats by monitoring and responding to any
network anomalies, continually analyzing for potential threats and reacting to them in real time?

A. Cisco Security Manager
B. Cisco ASA Firewall Senrices
C. Cisco ASA Next-Generation Firewall Services
D. Cisco Next-Generation Intrusion Prevention System
E. Cisco Web Security Appliance
F. Cisco Email Security Appliance
G. Cisco Identity Services Engine
H. Cisco Site-to-Site VPN

Answer: D


QUESTION: No: 4
Which Cisco security technology delivers the best real-time threat intelligence?

A. Cisco Security Intelligence Operations
B. Cisco ASA Next-Generation Firewall Services
C. Cisco Identity Senrices Engine
D. Cisco Security Manager
E. Cisco TrustSec

Answer: A

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The Big Question Rises How To Become Microsoft, Cisco, ComTIA Certified

The big question rises how to become the Microsoft certified , All Microsoft certifications are acquired by simply taking a series of exams. If you can self-study for said exams, and then pass them, then you can acquire the certification for the mere cost of the exam (and maybe whatever self-study materials you purchase).

You’ll also need, at minimum (in addition to the MCTS), the CompTIA A+, Network+ and Security+ certs; as well as the Cisco CCNA cert.

Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS) – This is the basic entry point of Microsoft Certifications. You only need to pass a single certification test to be considered an MCTS and there are numerous different courses and certifications that would grant you this after passing one. If you are shooting for some of the higher certifications that will be discussed below, then you’ll get this on your way there.

Microsoft Certified Professional Developer (MCPD) – This certification was Microsoft’s previous “Developer Certification” meaning that this was the highest certification that was offered that consisted strictly of development-related material. Receiving it involved passing four exams within specific areas (based on the focus of your certification). You can find the complete list of courses and paths required for the MCPD here.

Microsoft Certified Solutions Developer (MCSD) – This is Microsoft’s most recent “Developer Certification” which will replace the MCPD Certification (which is being deprecated / retired in July of 2013). The MCSD focuses within three major areas of very recent Microsoft development technologies and would likely be the best to persue if you wanted to focus on current and emerging skills that will be relevant in the coming years. You can find the complete list of courses and paths required for the MCSD here.

The Microsoft Certifications that you listed are basically all of the major ones within the realm of development. I’ll cover each of the major ones and what they are :

Most people, however, take some kind of course. Some colleges — especially career and some community colleges — offer such courses (though usually they’re non-credit). Other providers of such courses are private… some of them Microsoft Certified vendors of one type or another, who offer the courses in such settings as sitting around a conference table in their offices. Still others specialize in Microsoft certification training, and so have nice classrooms set up in their offices.

There are also some online (and other forms of distance learning) courses to help prepare for the exams.

The cost of taking classes to prepare can vary wildly. Some are actually free (or very nearly so), while others can cost hundreds of dollars. It all just depends on the provider.

And here’s a Google search of MCTS training resources (which can be mind-numbing in their sheer numbers and types, so be careful what you choose):

There are some pretty good, yet relatively inexpensive, ways to get vendor certificate training. Be careful not to sign-up for something expensive and involved when something cheaper — like subscribing to an “all the certificates you care to study for one flat rate” web site — would, in addition to purchasing a study guide or two at a bookstore, likely be better.

If you want a career in IT, then you need to have both an accredited degree in same (preferably a bachelors over an associates), and also a variety of IT certifications. The MCTS is but one that you will need.

You should probably also get the Microsoft MCSE and/or MCSA. The ICS CISSP. And the ITIL.

There are others, but if you have those, you’ll be evidencing a broad range of IT expertise that will be useful, generally. Then, in addition, if the particular IT job in which you end-up requires additional specialist certification, then you can get that, too (hopefully at the expense of your employer who requires it of you).

Then, whenever (if ever) you’re interested in a masters in IT, here’s something really cool of which you should be aware…

There’s a big (and fully-accredited, fully-legitimate) university in Australia which has partnered with Microsoft and several other vendors to structure distance learning degrees which include various certifications; and in which degrees, considerable amounts of credit may be earned simply by acquiring said certifications. It’s WAY cool.

One can, for example, get up to half of the credit toward a Masters degree in information technology by simply getting an MCSE (though the exams which make it up must be certain ones which correspond with the university’s courses). I’ve always said that if one were going to get an MCSE, first consult the web site of this university and make sure that one takes the specific MCSE exams that this school requires so that if ever one later decided to enter said school’s masters program, one will have already earned up to half its degree’s credits by simply having the MCSE under his/her belt. Is that cool, or what?

I wouldn’t rely on them over experience (which is far and away the most valuable asset out there) but they are worth pursuing especially if you don’t feel like you have enough experience and need to demonstrate that you have the necessary skills to land a position as a developer.

If you are going to pursue a certification, I would recommend going after the MCSD (Web Applications Track) as it is a very recent certification that focuses on several emerging technologies that will still be very relevant (if not more-so) in the coming years. You’ll pick up the MCTS along the way and then you’ll have both of those under your belt. MCPD would be very difficult to achieve based on the short time constraints (passing four quite difficult tests within just a few months is feasible, but I don’t believe that it is worth it since it will be “retired” soon after).

No job experience at all is necessary for any of the Microsoft Certifications, you can take them at any time as long as you feel confident enough with the materials of the specific exam you should be fine. The tests are quite difficult by most standards and typically cover large amounts of material, but with what it sounds like a good bit of time to study and prepare you should be fine.

Certifications, in addition to degrees, are so important in the IT field, now, that one may almost no longer get a job in that field without both. The certifications, though, are so important that one who has a little IT experience can get a pretty good job even without a degree as long as he has all the right certs. But don’t do that. Definitely get the degree… and not merely an associates. Get the bachelors in IT; and make sure it’s from a “regionally” accredited school.

Then get the certs I mentioned (being mindful, if you think you’ll ever get an IT masters, to take the specific exams that that Strut masters program requires so that you’ll have already earned up to half the credit just from the certs).

If you already have two years of experience in working in the .NET environment, a certification isn’t going to guarantee that you will get employed, a salary increase or any other bonuses for achieving the honor. However, it can help supplement your resume by indicating that you are familiar with specific technologies enough to apply them in real-world applications to solve problems.

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Cisco to acquire malware prevention company

ThreatGRID will enhance products Cisco obtained in last year’s Sourcefire acquisition

Cisco this week announced its intent to acquire ThreatGrid, a New York-based maker of malware analysis and threat intelligence technology. Terms of the acquisition were not disclosed.

ThreatGrid’s products will enhance the malware protection portfolio obtained from Cisco’s acquisition of Sourcefire in 2013, the company says. ThreatGrid makes products for both on-premises and cloud-based security.

[ Find out what topics and issues affect tech’s biggest names and news makers in the IDGE Insider CEO interview series. | Read Bill Snyder’s Tech’s Bottom Line blog for what the key business trends mean to you. ]

On-premises products are designed for internal data retention. The Sourcefire sourced products address network to endpoint capabilities, including malware detection and blocking, analysis and retrospective remediation of advanced threats.

The combination of Sourcefire and ThreatGrid will allow Cisco customers to aggregate and correlate data to identify cyber threats, Cisco says.

Cisco expects the acquisition to close in the fourth quarter of its fiscal year 2014.

ThreatGrid adds malware sandboxing capabilities for public and private clouds to the Sourcefire FireAMP (advanced malware protection) product line, says Derek Idemoto, vice president of corporate development at Cisco.

“Sourcefire’s been aware of ThreatGrid for years,” Idemoto said at this week’s Cisco Live conference. “We asked them, ‘What is the next thing we should be doing?'”

Acquiring ThreatGrid’s 25 engineers is apparently what the Sourcefire team recommended.

There is no product overlap with the FireAMP portfolio, Idemoto said.

Jim Duffy has been covering technology for over 28 years, 23 at Network World. He also writes The Cisco Connection blog and can be reached on Twitter @Jim_Duffy.

Read more about wide area network in Network World’s Wide Area Network section.


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Top 5 cities for big data jobs

San Francisco tops Modis list, followed by McLean, Va., Boston, St. Louis and Toronto

Corporate data stores are growing exponentially, nearly every tech vendor is positioning their products to help handle the influx of data, and IT departments are scrambling to find the right people to collect, analyze and interpret data in a way that’s meaningful to the business. On the employment front, the big data deluge is creating a hiring boom across North America. Modis, an IT staffing firm, identified five cities in particular where big data is driving job growth.

San Francisco tops the Modis list, followed by McLean, Va., Boston, St. Louis and Toronto. The roles that companies in these cities are fighting to fill include data scientist, data analyst, business intelligence professional and data modeling/data modeler.

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Business intelligence and data analysis have been core enterprise disciplines for a long time, but they’re becoming more important to businesses as data volumes rise, says Laura Kelley, a Modis vice president in Houston. “We’re in a new era in terms of how large the databases are, the amount of data we’re collecting, and how we’re using it. It’s much more strategic than it’s ever been.”

Big data professionals can be particularly difficult to find since many roles require a complicated blend of business, analytic, statistical and computer skills — which is not something a candidate acquires overnight. In addition, “clients are looking for people with a certain level of experience, who have worked in a big data environment. There aren’t a lot of them in the market,” Kelley says.

 

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Looking at recruiting trends across its offices, Modis finds there’s not one industry that’s doing the most big-data hiring. Rather, the cities have in common a concentration of large enterprises across myriad industries.

San Francisco, for instance, is home to large companies in the retail, insurance, healthcare, and e-commerce sectors.

McLean, Va., has both a strong commercial sector and government presence. “There are many data center operations in this area, both commercial and government related, that require talent to support the high volume of that data,” Modis explains in its report. “In addition, there is no larger consumer of IT products and services in the world than the US federal government.”

Banking and bio/pharmaceutical industries helped put Boston on the big data hiring map. “Both industries deal with large amounts of data that are detailed and complex in nature. That data then needs to be analyzed and placed in reports, dashboards and spreadsheets by data scientist and analysts,” Modis writes.

In St. Louis, universities and healthcare companies lead the big data hiring boom, followed by pharmaceutical and bioresearch firms that need to fill data analyst and scientist roles.

Lastly, in Toronto, financial institutions are fueling a need for business intelligence pros who can help organizations get a more precise and complete picture of the business and customers, Modis finds.

In the big picture, companies often have to compromise and prioritize their wish list — technical expertise, industry experience or quantitative statistical analysis skills, for experience — to find available big-data candidates.

“What is this person going to be doing? Do you need the technical skills? Or is the quantitative/statistical expertise more important? Is this person going to be doing data modeling or making business decisions?” Kelley says. “In an ideal world, companies want all of it. But it’s not an ideal world.”

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Database Certifications

Popular database certifications are always in demand, whether it’sMicrosoft’s MCTS and MCITP, Oracle’s OCA, OCP and OCM or MySql’s CMA, CMDEV and CMDBA.

Are you a database professional seeking to polish your resume in the hopes of landing a better gig? Perhaps you’re just getting started in database administration and you’d like to establish your credentials in the field. Database vendors offer a variety of professional certification programs that can help you advance your career while gaining valuable technical skills. After all, even the most seasoned professional has yet to fully explore some nook or cranny of the field that’s covered on a certification exam.

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So, where do you start? Most database certs are vendor-specific, so you’ll want to earn a certification from the company that puts out the software you’re currently working with or would like to work with in the future. We’ll take a brief look at the credentials available from the major vendors.

If you’re an Oracle guru, the Oracle Certified Professional program may be for you. There’s one catch to this program, however. Before receiving any Oracle credential, all candidates must take at least one instructor-led course. If you’re like me and you just want to pick up the book, study and take the exam, you’re out of luck here. Oracle’s program includes three tiers of certification, beginning with the Oracle Database Administrator Certified Associate (OCA), progressing through the Oracle Database Administrator Certified Professional (OCP) and culminating with the Oracle Database Administrator Certified Master (OCM). Each certification is version-specific, so you’ll need to update your certification each time a new version of Oracle rolls off the production line.

On the other hand, if you work in a Microsoft shop, you should consider one of several certifications:
• If you’re maintaining Microsoft Access databases for your organization, the simplest database credential is the Microsoft Office Specialist Access Track. This is a one-exam certification that covers basic knowledge of Microsoft Access 2003 and Access XP topics. Users of Access 2007 should instead prepare for the Microsoft Certified Application Specialist (MCAS) program.
• The Microsoft Certified Technical Specialist (MCTS) credential is the entry-level certification for SQL Server professionals. There are three different certification paths: MCTS SQL Server 2008 Implementation and Maintenance, MCTS SQL Server 2008 Database Development and MCTS SQL Server 2008 Business Intelligence Development and Maintenance. Each requires only a single exam and may be used to build toward higher-level Microsoft certifications
• The Microsoft Certified Information Technology Professional (MCITP) credential is the premier certification for SQL Server administrators. It also comes in three variations. If you already hold the MCTS in SQL Server 200 Implementation and Maintenance, you can upgrade it to MCITP: Database Administrator with a single exam. Similarly, those who passed the MCTS Database Development exam can become MCITP: Database Developers with one additional exam. Finally, if you’re an MCTS in Business Intelligence Development and Maintenance, you can upgrade to MCITP: Business Intelligence Developer with one test.
Finally, if you’re a MySQL user, you might find one of their four certifications useful in your career:
• The MySQL Associate (CMA) certification requires passing a single exam and attests to the holder’s knowledge of basic MySQL skills.
• MySQL database administrators may earn the Certified MySQL Database Administrator (CMDBA) certification by passing two advanced examinations.

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• Similarly, MySQL developers may earn the Certified MySQL Developer (CMDEV) credential with two development-focused exams.
• Finally, CMDBA holders may upgrade to MySQL Cluster certification by passing a single additional exam.
Once you’ve chosen a credential that’s suitable for you, it’s time to hit the books and/or take a course and get started on your way to professional certification!

Protocol wars: Can Fibre Channel survive Ethernet’s assault?

Protocol wars: Can Fibre Channel survive Ethernet’s assault?
Although Fibre Channel is seeing single-digit growth rates, Ethernet for storage is exploding

Computerworld – Fibre Channel, the high-speed data transport protocol for storage area networks (SAN), is under increasing pressure as data centers move toward Ethernet for all data network traffic and SAS for hardware interconnects.

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By no means is Fibre Channel down and out. In fact, recent figures indicate it’s still showing low single-digit, year-over-year growth. The protocol is currently used in $50 billion worth of equipment around the world, according to research firm Gartner.

Because corporate data centers are slow to change out technology, the Fibre Channel networking market will likely continue to show sluggish growth for the next five to 10 years. After that, Ethernet looks to be the protocol of the future.

“The counter winds against Ethernet is that there’s a lot of politics and a lot of religion around Fibre Channel,” said Forrester analyst Andrew Reichmann. “[But] Ethernet can do most everything Fibre Channel can do. Ethernet is cheaper, more ubiquitous.”

And it allows IT managers to find the best fit for specific application workloads, he said. “As those decisions move more toward a workload-centric approach, the one that makes the most sense is Ethernet. For example, it makes more sense to put your [virtual machine] infrastructure on iSCSI or NFS [network file system] because there’s very little difference in the performance you get compared to Fibre Channel.”

Slowing the move to Ethernet — for now — are the usual IT turf battles. Storage networks and hardware are purchased by the storage team, which controls that portion of the overall IT budget. Moving to an all-Ethernet infrastructure means giving that budget away to the networking group, according to Reichmann.

On top of that, some storage administrators simply don’t believe Ethernet is robust enough for data storage traffic. They’ve always used Fibre Channel and see it as the fastest, most reliable way to move data between servers and back-end storage.

“All those factors make it hard to move away from Fibre Channel,” Reichmann said.

Market research firm IDC predicts Fibre Channel will remain at the core of many data centers (supporting mission-critical mainframe and Unix-based applications), while most future IT asset deployments will leverage 10GbE (and later 40GbE) for the underlying storage interconnect. This transition will lead eventually to market revenue losses for Fibre Channel host bus adapters (HBA) and switch products.

As the Fibre Channel market shrinks, IDC predicts “rapid and sustained revenue growth” for 10GbE storage interconnect hardware such as converged network adapters (CNA), 10GbE network interface cards (NIC) and switches. (A CNA is simply a network interface card that allows access to both SANs and more common LAN networks by offering multiple protocols such as Fibre Channel, iSCSI, Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) and straight Ethernet.)

SAS and Fibre Channel drives

Although Fibre Channel switch revenues have remained relatively flat over the past two years, according to Gartner, Fibre Channel disk drive sales have plummeted. Vendors are expected to stop shipping them within five years.

“We’re forecasting SAS will replacing Fibre Channel because it provides more flexibility and it lowers engineering costs,” said Gartner analyst Stan Zaffos.

High-performance applications such as relational databases will be supported by SANs made up of 5% solid-state drives and 95% SAS drives, according to Forrester’s Reichmann. SAS, or serial-attached SCSI drives, are dual-ported for resilience and are just as fast as their Fibre Channel counterparts.

Unlike Fibre Channel, SAS shares a common backplane with cheap, high-capacity serial ATA (SATA) drives, so they’re interchangeable and can be mixed among drive trays. It also allows for simpler data migration in a tiered storage infrastructure.
IP storage is a buyer’s market

Gartner recently released figures showing that over the past two years, shipments of Fibre Channel HBAs and switches have remained relatively flat, while 10GbE unit shipments have soared. According to Gartner, shipments of 10GbE NICs rose from 259,000 in 2009 to more than 1.4 million last year. And it’s a buyer’s market, with prices falling through the floor due to fierce competition between seven principle vendors, including Intel, Broadcom, QLogic and Emulex.

“Prices for 10GbE hardware is going into the Dumpster. The market has to stabilize around three vendors before we see something from the revenue side,” said Sergis Mushell, an analyst at Gartner.

According to Mushell, single-port 10GbE NICs sell for $43 to $60 dollars; a year ago they went for $100. Dual-ported 10GbE NICs now go for about $300. And CNA cards sell for between $700 and $1,000.

In comparison, a 4Gbps Fibre Channel HBA sells for $337, while an 8Gbps HBA ranges between $1,000 and about $1,900 on sites such as Pricegrabber.com.

In the first quarter of 2010, Fibre Channel switch revenue totaled $1.59 billion; a year later it hit $1.66 billion; and in the third quarter of 2011, it was $1.58 billion. (Those figures includes both 4Gbps and 8Gbps modular and fixed switches.)

Sales of Fibre Channel HBAs — network interface cards that are required for servers and storage arrays alike — have also struggled. In the first quarter of 2010, HBA revenue totaled $781 million. While it rose to $855 million in the first quarter of 2011, it dropped back to $811 million by the third quarter of the year.

According to IDC, as the economic recession abated in 2010, IT shops began server upgrades that had been deferred, with an increased use of server and storage virtualization. To manage those virtualized infrastructures, IT managers sought out a set of standard elements: x86 processors for computing, PCI for system buses, Ethernet for networking and SAS for hard drive and SSD interfaces.

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Overview of Major IT Certifications

In today’s competitive IT job market, an IT certification is often a prerequisite to get a high-paying job or a salary increase. Professional certifications are the best way to demonstrate your skills and expertise in any given technical field to present to prospective employers. Through education and certification, professionals gain the skills, knowledge, and validation needed to be recognized as an expert in diverse products or technologies. MCSE Certification, CCNA Certification, A+ Certification, and SAP Certification are a few of the many certifications or credentials an IT professional may achieve.

 

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Microsoft Certifications

Microsoft certification programs are considered to be the major advancement to gain both professional and education background. The Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) certification prove an individual’s expertise in designing and implementing the required infrastructure for any type of business solutions based on the Microsoft Windows 2000 platform and Microsoft Windows Server System. Other Microsoft certifications include MCAD (Microsoft Certified Application Developer) certification, MCSA (Microsoft Certified Systems Analyst) and MCT (Microsoft Certified Trainer).

Cisco Certifications

The CCNA certification (Cisco Certified Network Associate) indicates a foundation in apprentice knowledge of networking with certified professionals able to install, configure, and operate WAN, LAN, and dial access services for small networks with 100 nodes or fewer. Operation and configuration services also includes but are not limited to use one but several of the following protocols: Serial, Frame Relay, IP RIP, IP, IGRP, VLANs, RIP, and Ethernet, Access Lists. CCNE, CCIE and CCNP are other Cisco certifications.

SAP Certification

SAP Certification is sponsored by SAP corporation – a leading business software (ERP, CRM and Supply Chain software) vendor. It is one of the few credentials in the world of business with additional value only issued to those professionals who demonstrated their abilities by passing demanding, process-oriented exams through rigorous study or direct experience.

A+ Certification

A+ certification is different from the others because it is not promoted by one company only, but by a whole group of PC manufacturers and other companies in the hardware market and its acceptance as an industry-wide credential offers additional benefits. A+ Certification prove the competency of entry-level service technicians in the computer industry and it is an internationally recognized testing program sponsored by the Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA).

How to set up the perfect teleworking environment

Teleworking (aka working from home) is increasing fast as new technology and communications make it possible. Here’s how to make the most of it.

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It can be the best of both worlds – getting paid to work, but doing so from home where you can avoid hours wasted stuck in traffic or beating the train crush, not to mention saving on those transport costs and expensive cafe lunches. Plus, you can even sit there and work in your PJs, as long as you don’t sleep on the job.

But if you’re going to work from home – part-time or full-time – you need the right setup. This applies whether you’re working as an extension of your presence at work, or if working from home is your full-time employment. It is, as always, about the right tools for the job.

Work space
Ideally, you want a spare room. It’s not just that you need an area to work, or that the area is sufficient to support your work (if you can only fit a tiny desk it isn’t going to help if you work with a lot of papers), it’s also essential to help you strike the work/life balance: an area separate from the rest of the house allows you to close the door at the end of the day and separate your work from your home life.

Then, of course, you’ll need:

Desk
Don’t underestimate the value of a large desk. The height should be around 70cm tall and should have enough space to comfortably place your monitor 45-60cm away from you, and which should be adjusted so the top of the monitor is roughly in line with your eyes. Regardless of whether you use a notebook or a desktop, having ‘spread space’ to lay out your work on your desk helps you keep organised. You also need room for your mouse, keyboard, phone, printer and anything else you need to work (no, that espresso maker doesn’t count as essential for desk space!).

Chair
If you plan to telework extensively, you need to think about your health. A bad chair can encourage bad posture and ultimately lead to problems. If this is your full-time working environment, you need a decent, ergonomically sound chair to support your hours at your desk – just as is if you were in the office. So no, that kitchen stool is right out! The chair needs to be height-adjustable, and you need to set it so your hands and forearms rest on the desk at a 90-degree angle, with your feet flat on the floor. It’s not just a matter of posture – being comfortable and having your back properly supported enables you to work more effectively. There’s a reason chairs can cost a lot of money, so invest in a good one. In many ways it’s the centrepiece of your work space.

Lighting
This is often neglected, but the work space needs to have good lighting. Sunlight is ideal, but otherwise if using artificial light make sure it’s overhead and diffuse to prevent glare. If you have to use desk lamps, face them away from your field of vision. Be careful with windows for sunlight – monitors placed facing them will also suffer glare, and windows behind can cause contrast issues with the monitor and strain your eyes, so it’s usually best to place them perpendicular to the window. Blinds are very useful for controlling lighting in your work space.

Noise
Another often-overlooked component, how noisy is your work space environment? Your space at the office may be quiet or quite rowdy, but it’s usually consistent and you can tune out. At home, external noises such as the street or neighbours, to say nothing of internal ones from family or pets, can be distracting. If you can’t prevent the noise, you can reduce its impact by masking it with radio or playing music on low volume. You should also set a schedule of when you can and can’t be disturbed.

Hardware
By definition, teleworking is a surrogate for your office, and so needs much of the same equipment. You likely have most of these already, and what you don’t have your IT department may be able to supply – it depends on the policies for teleworking at your office:

Computer
The obvious one. Desktops certainly make it easy, but notebooks and the prevalence of 3G means you don’t actually have to be bound to any one place to telework. It’s also easy for an IT department to outfit a notebook with everything you need to telework installed and ready to go, which not only makes it easy for you but allows them to ensure security with a known installed software base and configuration.

Modem
Broadband is prevalent these days, and one of the key drivers for telework adoption. However, you can also use 3G through dongles or phone tethering (Android and iPhones make this a snap). If you plan to use remote desktop software (see ‘Router’, next), broadband will be all-but essential – 3G can’t match the latency or speed. Check your broadband plan – if teleworking will break your data cap, you’ll need to upgrade to a larger plan before you realise your cap is broken. Paying through the nose for excess 3G data, or being throttled by an ISP, will kill your ability to telework effectively.

Router
If you have other networked devices connected – notebook and desktop, network-attached storage, printer etc. – you’ll need a router. Most broadband modems these days include a four-port router and wireless, which is usually sufficient. These however are almost always 10/100. If you plan to move a lot of data at home, you’ll need a gigabit router or switch (a switch is preferred if you have heterogeneous devices with different capabilities).

Printer or MFC
If your role requires paperwork, you may be expected to print out material. Printers are cheap these days (though inks can quickly add up – read reviews before deciding on a model).

Backup and storage
Sounds boring, but this is vital. Firstly, where are you storing your work files? Are they only on the work network, or stored locally? If they’re on your notebook, what happens if it gets stolen? And do you have a backup regimen? Hardware fails eventually, so storing just on the desktop or notebook is not enough. An external USB drive or (if you have a lot of data) NAS is essential. If backing up is always last on your to-do list, automate it with specialised software. Cloud services are another option (more on this below). These days multi-terabyte USB drives can be had for peanuts.

Communication
Sometimes email and messaging isn’t enough. Your home phone is one option for keeping in contact, but a mobile is probably preferred. If you can, get a new mobile specifically for work. Not only can this help you keep your work and home life separate (leave the mobile in the office when you’re done for day!), but as it’s for work it should also be a work cost. Otherwise, VoIP is cheap if you have it as an option on your broadband plan.

Other hardware, aside from stationary (you did buy or borrow some pens right?) that’s useful are surge protectors (this is your work, getting behind due to a hardware failure probably isn’t what you have in mind), wireless routers if you plan to be able to ‘roam around the home’ with notebooks and phones for work, and if your ADSL or cable broadband connection is in a different room to your home office, powerline networking devices can allow you to connect rooms without stringing cables around the home.

Software
There are a number of solutions for teleworking. If your company encourages and promotes teleworking, it will likely already have a solution in mind – software specifically designed to make connecting remotely both easy and, importantly, secure. Traditionally, there are two key methods for teleworking:

Connecting to your work PC
As though you were sitting in front of it. You can interact with your PC’s desktop and do anything you would normally do if you were at work. Software to do this includes Citrix GoToMyPC, Symantec pcAnywhere, TeamViewer, LogMeIn, NoMachine, and Real VNC, among others. Microsoft also has remote desktop software built into Windows 7, as does Apple for Mac OS X, and there are a range of free tools for Linux.

Connecting to the work network
Usually via a VPN (virtual private network). This gives you access to shared drives, the intranet, printers and other services as though you were sitting on the network at work. For extra security, some companies will run remote desktop software through a VPN. Windows, Mac and Linux all support VPNs out of the box.

Both have their pros and cons. Remote desktop software is a virtual presence at the office, and has the advantage of providing any software and services at home that you would be able to access and use if you were at work. It also makes it relatively easy for the admins to keep the network secure, as your access is only via your PC. The downside is that this can be a bandwidth-heavy solution, operating your desktop remotely in real-time.

Access to a network such as with a VPN can be a lot less bandwidth-intensive – you’re literally connecting your home network (even if that’s just your PC) to the work network through a secure connection. You won’t have access to your work desktop, but you should be able to access anything else on the network that you would normally be allowed to use via the VPN.

There’s a third method these days that’s rapidly evolving thanks to the internet – shared cloud services. Rather than connect to a secure work network or PC, if a business migrates its email, office applications and file sharing online then the concept of the office no longer becomes the physical work network sitting in the building where your office is located – it becomes any place you happen to be, as long as there’s internet access.

This is something that groupware providers have been taking heavy advantage of, and three of the big players are:

Microsoft now provides Office 365 which integrates local Office software and web-based services. This include Microsoft’s Office Web Apps, SkyDrive storage, Exchange and SharePoint.

Google has its suite of apps that include Google Docs, Gmail, Google Calendar and Google Talk for messaging.

Zoho provides Zoho Docs, Zoho Mail, Zoho Meeting, Zoho Projects, Zoho Chat and even shared Wiki collaboration with Zoho Wiki.

All of these aim to provide a consistent suite of productivity and collaboration programs that work both at the office and remotely for teleworking.

Other software that is useful specifically for teleworking includes messaging – even if it’s just classics such as ICQ, MSN or Yahoo – and video conferencing, for which there are plenty of options, though Skype is the most well-known. Beyond this, depending on your role, you can even find shared cloud services that include web presenting, whiteboarding, screen sharing and project management. However while cloud services can still be secure, and provide a way to work and collaborate through purely internet-accessible tools, the downside is the reliance on cloud service providers – if they go down or suffer outages, so does your business.

Your company may also require some extra security software be installed (even if it’s just a reliable anti-virus/anti-malware suite). After all, your PC becomes an access point to the network, which is one more point of vulnerability. If this is the case, follow whatever procedures your IT department requires. It’s a small price to pay for the freedom of working from home.