Archive for the ‘MCITP Training’ Category

70-450: PRO: Designing, Optimizing and Maintaining a Database Administrative Solution Using Microsoft SQL Server 2008

You work as a database administrator at You are in the process of preparing the
deployment of a new database that will have 45 gigabytes storage space for the transaction log
file, and 280 gigabytes storage space for the database data file.
There are approximately six 120 GB disk drives available for the database in the storage array. contains a RAID controller that supports RAID levels 0, 1, 5 and 10. The disks are on
the RAID controller. You have received an instruction from the CIO to make sure that the
transaction log’s write performance runs at optimum. The CIO has also instructed you to make
sure that in the event of a drive failure, the database and transaction log files are protected.
To achieve this goal, you decide to configure a storage solution.
Which of the following actions should you take?

A. You should consider using a RAID 1 volume as well as a RAID 5 volume in your storage configuration.
B. You should consider using a RAID 1 volume as well as a RAID 10 volume in your storage configuration.
C. You should consider using a RAID 3 volume as well as a RAID 5 volume in your storage configuration.
D. You should consider using a RAID 1 volume as well as a RAID 3 volume in your storage configuration.

Answer: A


You work as a database administrator at has a database server named ABCDB04
with a SQL Server 2008 instance that includes an extensive mission-critical database that is
constantly being used ABC-DB04 has a quad-core motherboard with four CPUs.
When it is reported that ABC-DB04 often encounters CPU pressure, you receive an instruction
from management to make sure that the accessible CPU cycles are not exhausted by online index rebuilds.
Which of the following actions should you take?

A. You should make use of the affinity I/O mask option.
B. You should make use of the optimize for ad hoc workloads option.
C. You should make use of the affinity mask option.
D. You should make use of the max degree of parallelism option.

Answer: D


You work as a database administrator at has a database server named ABCDB01
with a SQL Server 2008 instance.
During routine monitoring on ABC-DB01, you discover that the amount of CXPACKET waits
experienced by the instance is low, while the amount of lazy writer waits is abundant.
You have been instructed to enhance the operation of the instance to ensure productivity.
Which of the following actions should you take?

A. You should consider setting up the Windows System Monitoring tool to better the performance.
B. You should consider setting up the Asynchronous database mirroring to better the performance.
C. You should consider using the SQLAGENT.OUT log to better the performance.
D. You should consider setting up the software non-uniform memory access (soft-NUMA) to better the performance.

Answer: D


You work as a database administrator at has a database server named ABCDB01.
ABC-DB01 is configured with 4 quad-core processors, 80 gigabytes of RAM, and multiple
independent raid volumes.
You are in the process of using a transactional database on the instance. It is anticipated that the
transactional database will have a significant amount of INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE
activities, which incorporates the creation of new tables.
You receive an instruction from management to minimize the contention in the storage allocation
structures so that database performance is optimized, and the disk bandwidth maximized.
Which of the following actions should you take?

A. You should consider enabling Server Auditing.
B. You should consider using multiple data files for the database.
C. You should consider using row-level compression.
D. You should consider using the checksum page verify option.

Answer: B


You work as a database administrator at has informed you that a new database, named ABCData, has to be installed on a SQL
Server 2008 instance. ABCData is made up of several schemas, of which one will host a
significant amount of read-only reference information. Information is regularly inserted and
updated on ABCData.
You have received instructions from the management to configure a physical database structure
that enhances the backup operation.
Which of the following actions should you take?

A. This can be accomplished by using multiple filegroups and a single log file to set up the database.
B. This can be accomplished by using caching on the multiple data files.
C. This can be accomplished by using multiple downstream servers to create the database.
D. This can be accomplished by using the Database Engine Tuning Advisor tool to create the database.

Answer: A


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70-236 Microsoft Exchange Server 2012

Preface xvii
Foreword xxi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 A decade and counting of Exchange deployments 1
1.1.1 The way we were 2
1.1.2 The protocol wars 2
1.1.3 Ever increasing mobility 4
1.1.4 Third-party products and management 6
1.1.5 Some interesting projects 6
1.1.6 The not so good points 7
1.1.7 Exchange’s connection with the Active Directory 10
1.1.8 Reviewing predictions made in 1996 11
1.2 Microsoft’s themes for Exchange 2007 12
1.2.1 The happy prospect of a migration 18
1.3 Preparing for Exchange 2007 20
1.4 Installing Exchange 2007 22
1.4.1 Modifying and removing servers 27
1.4.2 Validating the installation 27
1.4.3 Third-party software 28
1.5 Server roles 28
1.5.1 Services 32
1.6 Licensing 36
1.6.1 Version numbers 40
1.6.2 32-bit Exchange 2007? 41
1.7 Support 42
1.8 Challenges for Exchange 2007 42
1.9 Into the future 45
vi Contents
2 Exchange, Windows, and the Active Directory 47
2.1 Active Directory and Exchange 47
2.1.1 Domain Designs 48
2.2 Active Directory replication 50
2.2.1 Replication basics 51
2.2.2 When Active Directory replication happens 53
2.2.3 Active Directory naming contexts 55
2.2.4 Transforming Domain controllers into
Global Catalogs 58
2.2.5 USNs and replication 60
2.2.6 Urgent replication 64
2.2.7 Intrasite and Intersite replication 65
2.2.8 High-watermark vector and up-to-date vector tables 68
2.2.9 Changes in Active Directory replication in Windows 2003 70
2.3 Exchange’s Active Directory Topology service 71
2.3.1 DSAccess (or ADAccess) 72
2.3.2 How many Global Catalog servers do I need? 75
2.3.3 Where are my Global Catalogs? 76
2.4 Recovering deleted Active Directory accounts 78
2.5 Exchange and the Active Directory schema 80
2.5.1 Updating the schema with an installation 80
2.5.2 Changing the schema 82
2.5.3 Active Directory custom attributes for Exchange 85
2.5.4 Updating the schema to allow Ambiguous
Name Resolution 86
2.5.5 Exchange-specific permissions 87
2.5.6 Exchange property sets 88
2.6 Longhorn and Exchange 2007 90
2.7 The very important LegacyExchangeDN attribute 91
2.8 Brain surgery for the Active Directory: ADSIEDIT 93
2.8.1 LDP and LDIFDE 96
2.8.2 Active Directory for Exchange 98
3 The Basics of Managing Exchange 2007 99
3.1 Exchange Management Console 100
3.1.1 The importance of filters 104
3.1.2 Managing mixed organizations 109
3.1.3 Running EMC remotely or on a workstation 112
3.1.4 No more AD Users and Computers 113
3.1.5 Changing columns 115
Contents vii
3.1.6 Visual effects 116
3.2 Why some options have disappeared from EMC 118
3.2.1 Coping with change 122
3.3 Changes in the Exchange delegation model 124
3.4 Customized Recipient Management 128
3.4.1 Adieu RUS 130
3.4.2 Recipient types 132
3.5 Moving users 133
3.5.1 Moving mailboxes 134
3.5.2 Logging mailbox moves 138
3.6 Using distribution groups 140
3.6.1 Forming groups 142
3.6.2 Group changes in Exchange 2007 145
3.6.3 Expanding distribution lists 147
3.6.4 How many objects can I have in a group? 148
3.6.5 Managing group membership 149
3.6.6 Protected groups (and users) 152
3.7 Using groups for permissions 154
3.7.1 Managing distribution groups from Outlook 154
3.8 Dynamic distribution groups 156
3.8.1 Changing filters and conditions for dynamic
distribution groups 157
3.8.2 A note on OPATH 159
3.8.3 A new UI for dynamic groups 160
3.8.4 Creating New dynamic groups 162
3.8.5 Using dynamic Distribution groups 167
3.9 Mailbox quotas 168
3.9.1 Setting mailbox quotas 170
3.10 Email address policies 173
3.10.1 Mailbox moves and email address policies 178
3.10.2 Queries that drive email address policies 178
3.11 Address lists 183
3.11.1 Upgrading Address Lists to Exchange 2007 format 187
3.12 User naming conventions 188
3.13 Server naming conventions 192
3.14 Moving from the basics 194
4 The Exchange Management Shell 195
4.1 EMS: Exchange’s management shell 197
4.1.1 Working with PowerShell commands 199
4.1.2 Exchange shell commands 204
viii Contents
4.1.3 Command editing 208
4.1.4 Getting at more information about something 210
4.1.5 Using common and user-defined variables 214
4.1.6 Identities 217
4.1.7 Working in a multi-domain forest 219
4.1.8 Profiles 221
4.1.9 PowerShell in batch 223
4.1.10 Execution policies 224
4.1.11 Sending email from the shell 226
4.2 Learning from EMC 229
4.3 Using EMS to work with mailboxes 232
4.3.1 Creating a new mailbox with a template 232
4.3.2 Setting and retrieving mailbox properties 234
4.3.3 Other ways of interacting with mailboxes 244
4.3.4 Get-Recipient 245
4.3.5 Moving mailboxes 245
4.3.6 Accessing another user’s mailbox 249
4.3.7 Different commands and different properties 251
4.3.8 Contacts 252
4.4 Working with distribution groups 253
4.4.1 Working with dynamic distribution groups 257
4.4.2 Advanced group properties 262
4.5 Delegation through the shell 265
4.6 Creating efficient filters 267
4.7 Bulk updates 270
4.7.1 Creating sets of mailboxes 273
4.8 Reporting mailbox data 275
4.8.1 Special properties 282
4.9 Using the shell for other management tasks 284
4.10 Command validation 287
4.11 Working with remote servers 290
4.12 Working with non-Exchange 2007 servers 291
4.13 Testing Exchange 2007 292
4.13.1 Client connections 294
4.13.2 Mail Flow 295
4.13.3 Miscellaneous test commands 297
4.14 PowerShell for Exchange administrators 297
5 The Store 301
5.1 Introducing the Store 301
5.2 Differences in the Exchange 2007 Store 306
Contents ix
5.2.1 Are 64 bits that important? 307
5.2.2 Trading memory for I/O 312
5.2.3 The decrease in storage costs 317
5.3 No more streaming database 318
5.4 Tables and items 320
5.5 Storage groups 323
5.5.1 Creating a new storage group and database 327
5.5.2 Working with storage groups and databases 329
5.6 Transaction logs 331
5.6.1 Circular logging 335
5.6.2 Creating new transaction logs 337
5.6.3 Reserved logs 338
5.6.4 Transactions, buffers, and commitment 339
5.6.5 Transaction log I/O 341
5.6.6 Protecting transaction logs 341
5.6.7 Transaction log checksum 342
5.6.8 Maximum database size 343
5.7 Database portability 345
5.7.1 Zero database pages 349
5.8 MAPI connections and logons 349
5.9 The Deleted Items cache 350
5.9.1 Cleaning the Deleted Items cache 356
5.9.2 Recovering items and mailboxes 357
5.10 Background maintenance 360
5.10.1 Background tasks 364
5.10.2 Tracking background maintenance 367
5.11 Fixing failed databases 368
5.12 Exchange 2007 content indexing 375
5.12.1 Using content indexing 380
5.13 Public folders 383
5.13.1 Public folders and Exchange 2007 384
5.13.2 Changes in public folders administration since
Exchange 2003 386
5.13.3 Calming replication storms 388
5.13.4 Managing public folders with Exchange 2007 392
5.13.5 Permissions on top-level folders 405
5.13.6 Referrals 405
5.13.7 Migrating public folder content 406
5.14 Removing database size limits 408
5.15 Backups 408
5.15.1 NTBackup 410
x Contents
5.15.2 Other commercial backup products 410
5.15.3 Creating a backup strategy 413
5.15.4 Backups and storage groups 415
5.15.5 Checkpoint file 421
5.15.6 The future of streaming backups 426
5.16 Moving from the Store 427
6 Exchange Transport and Routing 429
6.1 The evolution of routing 429
6.2 Change through experience 430
6.2.1 Hidden administrative and routing groups 433
6.3 Exchange 2007 transport architecture 435
6.3.1 The critical role of hub transport servers 438
6.3.2 Receive connectors 440
6.3.3 Send connectors 447
6.3.4 Linking Exchange 2003 and Exchange 2007 453
6.3.5 Multiple routes into Exchange 2003 458
6.3.6 Decommissioning Exchange 2003 routing groups 458
6.3.7 Handling Exchange 2003 link state updates
during migration 458
6.3.8 Foreign connectors 459
6.3.9 Authorization 460
6.3.10 Accepted domains 460
6.3.11 Transport storage 461
6.4 Routing ABC 464
6.4.1 Resolving multiple paths 467
6.4.2 Most specific connector 467
6.4.3 Connector cost 469
6.4.4 Closest proximity 469
6.4.5 The role of hub routing sites 470
6.4.6 Site link costs versus routing costs 471
6.4.7 Instructing mailbox servers 472
6.4.8 Bypassing some connections 472
6.4.9 Protocol logging 473
6.4.10 X.400 support 474
6.4.11 Bifurcation 475
6.4.12 Header firewalls 476
6.5 Transport configuration 476
6.5.1 Transport configuration file 481
6.5.2 Routing logs 483
6.6 Queues 485
Contents xi
6.6.1 The Queue Viewer 488
6.6.2 The Unreachable queue 491
6.6.3 Poison messages 493
6.7 Back Pressure 494
6.8 Delivery Status Notifications 496
6.8.1 Customizing DSNs 501
6.8.2 Postmaster addresses 504
6.9 Transport agents 505
6.10 Transport summary 506
6.11 Edge servers 506
6.11.1 Edge or hub? 508
6.11.2 Basic Edge 510
6.11.3 Edge Synchronization 511
6.11.4 Basic Edge security 518
6.11.5 Fighting spam and email viruses 518
6.11.6 Defense in depth 522
6.11.7 Microsoft’s approach to mail hygiene 523
6.11.8 Forefront for Exchange 528
6.11.9 Mail Hygiene Agents 533
6.11.10 Agent logs 535
6.11.11 Connection filtering 536
6.11.12 Sender filtering 538
6.11.13 Address Rewrite agent 539
6.11.14 Sender ID agent 541
6.11.15 Content filtering 547
6.11.16 Content Filter updates 550
6.11.17 Per-user SCL processing 553
6.11.18 Safelist Aggregation 554
6.11.19 Sender reputation 557
6.11.20 Recipient filtering 559
6.11.21 Blocking file attachments 560
6.11.22 Attachment filtering 562
6.11.23 Edge transport rules 563
6.11.24 Available Edge 565
6.12 Client-side spam suppression 567
6.12.1 Outlook’s Junk Mail Filter 568
6.12.2 Postmarks 573
6.12.3 Restricting OOF and other notifications 574
6.13 Routing onwards 580
xii Contents
7 Clients 581
7.1 Outlook 583
7.1.1 Outlook web services 585
7.1.2 Understanding Outlook’s relationship with Exchange 591
7.1.3 Deploying cached Exchange mode 596
7.1.4 Address caching 599
7.1.5 MAPI compression and buffers 600
7.1.6 Conflict resolution 602
7.1.7 Preventing MAPI clients from connecting 603
7.1.8 Outlook 2007 and Exchange 5.5 607
7.2 Offline and personal Stores 608
7.2.1 Personal folders 609
7.2.2 Mail delivery to personal folders 611
7.2.3 Configuring PSTs 615
7.2.4 PST archiving 617
7.3 Offline folder files 619
7.3.1 OST synchronization 621
7.3.2 When things go wrong with your OST 623
7.4 Out of Office changes 624
7.4.1 The big question: Is Outlook 2007 worth the upgrade? 625
7.5 The Offline Address Book (OAB) 626
7.5.1 Downloading the OAB 627
7.5.2 OAB files on the PC 628
7.5.3 The evolving OAB format 630
7.5.4 OAB and cached Exchange mode 632
7.5.5 OAB generation and distribution 634
7.5.6 Creating a customized OAB 640
7.5.7 Allocating OABs to users 642
7.6 Outlook Anywhere 645
7.7 Outlook Web Access 650
7.7.1 New features in Outlook Web Access 2007 652
7.7.2 Outlook Web Access Light 658
7.7.3 International versions 662
7.7.4 Accessing legacy data 664
7.7.5 Managing Outlook Web Access 666
7.7.6 Authentication 667
7.7.7 Segmentation 671
7.7.8 Notifications 675
7.7.9 Controlling attachments 677
7.7.10 Themes 680
7.7.11 Client settings 684
Contents xiii
7.8 Internet client access protocols 684
7.8.1 IMAP4 685
7.8.2 The Exchange 2007 IMAP server 689
7.9 Mobile clients 694
7.9.1 Selecting mobile devices 696
7.9.2 Server-based ActiveSync 698
7.10 Windows Mobile 6.0 and Exchange 2007 702
7.10.1 ActiveSync policies 706
7.10.2 Managing mobile devices through EMC 711
7.10.3 Moving mailboxes to Exchange 2007 and ActiveSync 713
7.10.4 Estimating network traffic for mobile devices 715
7.10.5 Analyzing ActiveSync logs 717
7.10.6 Wiping mobile devices 719
7.10.7 Debugging synchronization 721
7.11 Comparing Windows Mobile and BlackBerry 723
7.11.1 Processing the mail 725
7.11.2 Other messaging options for Windows Mobile 730
7.11.3 Power management 731
7.11.4 Input flexibility 732
7.12 Unified Communications 735
7.13 Unified Messaging 737
7.13.1 Client Access to voicemail 741
7.13.2 Dealing with voicemail 745
7.13.3 Voice synthesis 747
7.13.4 Pure voicemail 748
7.13.5 The magic of SIP 749
7.13.6 Speech Grammars 752
7.13.7 Phonetic names 754
7.13.8 Cross-forest UM 756
7.14 Special mailboxes 756
7.15 Clients and users 759
8 Managing Users 761
8.1 Room and equipment mailboxes 762
8.1.1 Managing properties of room and equipment mailboxes 765
8.1.2 Converting old mailboxes to rooms 770
8.2 Helping users to use email better 771
8.2.1 Eliminating bad habits 771
8.2.2 Disclaimers 779
8.2.3 Out-of-Office Notifications 781
8.2.4 The last few bad email habits 781
xiv Contents
8.3 Customizing display templates 782
8.4 Exchange 2007 and compliance 787
8.4.1 The growing need for compliance 789
8.4.2 Transport rules 792
8.4.3 Using a rule to add disclaimer text to outgoing messages 794
8.4.4 Capturing selected messages 795
8.4.5 Becoming more complicated 797
8.4.6 Creating an ethical firewall 800
8.4.7 Transport rule storage 803
8.4.8 Rules and the shell 804
8.4.9 Journal rules 808
8.5 Messaging Record Management 815
8.5.1 Managing default folders 818
8.5.2 Managing custom folders 824
8.5.3 Allocating managed folders with policies 826
8.5.4 Applying policies to users 827
8.5.5 The Managed Folder Assistant 829
8.5.6 Logging Managed Folder activity 831
8.5.7 Using Managed Folders 833
8.5.8 Harvesting information from managed folders 835
8.6 Message classifications 837
8.6.1 Adding intelligence to classification through rules 844
8.7 Copying user mailboxes 848
8.7.1 Auditing 853
8.8 Free and busy 853
8.8.1 Looking at free and busy data 855
8.8.2 Free and busy in Exchange 2007 861
8.8.3 Changes in Outlook 2007 863
8.8.4 Cross-forest free and busy 866
9 Hardware and Performance 867
9.1 Moving toward 64-bit Exchange 867
9.2 Buying servers for Exchange 2007 870
9.3 The storage question 876
9.4 RPC pop-ups 881
9.5 Clusters and Exchange 882
9.6 Continuous replication and Exchange 2007 888
9.6.1 Concepts 889
9.7 Deploying Local Continuous Replication (LCR) 892
9.7.1 How LCR works 897
9.7.2 LCR operations 900
Contents xv
9.7.3 LCR restrictions 903
9.7.4 LCR database transition 904
9.8 Deploying Cluster Continuous Replication (CCR) 906
9.8.1 Comparing CCR and traditional clusters 910
9.8.2 CCR in practice 912
9.8.3 CCR failovers 915
9.8.4 Lost Log Resilience 919
9.8.5 The transport dumpster 921
9.8.6 Standby Continuous Replication 924
9.9 Continuous Log Replication: Good or bad? 924
9.10 Virtual Exchange 925
10 More useful things to Know about Exchange 929
10.1 Automated analysis 929
10.1.1 SSCP 932
10.1.2 Microsoft’s Release to Web (RTW) strategy 933
10.2 The Exchange Toolbox 935
10.2.1 Updates 936
10.2.2 Database Recovery Management 937
10.2.3 Database Troubleshooter 942
10.2.4 Mail Flow Troubleshooter 943
10.3 Messaging tracking logs 945
10.3.1 Generating message tracking logs 947
10.3.2 Log sizes and ages 950
10.3.3 Keeping track of message subjects 951
10.3.4 Accessing message tracking logs 951
10.3.5 Using the Troubleshooting Assistant to track messages 952
10.3.6 Tracking messages with EMS 956
10.3.7 Message delivery latency 959
10.4 Management frameworks 959
10.5 Utilities 963
10.5.1 Performance testing 963
10.5.2 The MFCMAPI utility 965
10.5.3 MDBVU32 968
10.5.4 ExMon—Exchange User Monitor 968
10.5.5 PFDavAdmin 971
10.5.6 LogParser 973
10.5.7 Outlook Spy 978
10.6 Bits and pieces 978
10.6.1 Where the Exchange team hangs out 978
10.6.2 Online Forums 979
xvi Contents
10.7 Conferences 979
10.7.1 Magazines 980
10.7.2 How Exchange uses registry keys 980
10.8 Good reference books 981
A Appendix 983
A.1 Message Tracking Log Format 983
A.2 Events noted in Message Tracking Logs 985
B Important Exchange PowerShell commands 987
B.1 Recipient management commands 987
B.2 Exchange server administrative Commands 990
B.3 Databases and Storage Groups 993
B.4 Address Lists and Email Policies 995
B.5 Queues and Messages 995
B.6 Edge Synchronization 996
B.7 Routing 997
B.8 ActiveSync 998
B.9 Public folders 999
B.10 Transport and journal rules 1000
B.11 IMAP and POP 1001
B.12 Active Directory commands 1002
B.13 Testing Exchange 2007 1003
B.14 Basic PowerShell 1004
B.15 PowerShell control commands 1005


By their very nature, every book that seeks to describe how technology works face challenges during its creation. Dealing with beta software and attempting to resolve the difference between how the software works and how the developers say it will work in the final version is a problem faced by any author, which is one reason why it is often best to wait to finalize text after you have a chance to work with released software. Looking back at this project, in some ways, this has been the hardest book of the seven that I have written about Exchange. I think that there are four reasons why this might be so. First, Exchange 2007 marks the boundary for substantial architectural change within the product, so it is similar to the degree of change that we experienced when we moved from Exchange 5.5 to Exchange 2000. Second, the nature of software is that it becomes more complex over time as the developers add new features and this is certainly true of Exchange 2007. The new features have to be considered, probed, and documented, all of which takes time. Third, the Exchange development team has done an excellent job since 2004 to document all aspects of Exchange in a more comprehensive manner than ever before.

The Exchange 2007 help file, TechNet, MSDN, and the excellent Exchange team blog at default.aspx are interesting and productive hoards of information for authors to mine. Unfortunately, there is often too much material (a good complaint to have) and the material needs to be interpreted and analyzed in the light of your own experience with Exchange. Engineers write great blogs, but the scourge of cognitive dissonance often means that they omit some detail that makes all the difference to a newcomer in understanding why a component works the way that it does. Last but not least, you should not underestimate the degree of cultural change that Microsoft has incorporated into Exchange 2007 in the transition from a predominantly GUI-centric approach to server management to the use of the PowerShell scripting language as the basis of many management operations. The need to understand and appreciate the change has to occur before you can adequately document and describe the benefits and this increases the effort required to write the book. I must admit that it took me time to realize the full benefit of interacting with Exchange through the shell, but now I am at the point where I wonder why Microsoft never provided such a powerful interface in the past! The degree of change that exists in Exchange 2007 means that it is diffi- cult to cover everything in one book. I have therefore elected to cover the parts of Exchange that I think are of most interest to the majority of administrators and have left other components for you to discover through the material that Microsoft publishes or perhaps another book, written by me or someone else. Please accept my apology if I have not covered something that you think is important and treat this as a challenge and opportunity for you to write about the topic yourself. There are many magazines, blogs, and other ways of spreading information about Exchange. From time to time, I wander back down the path to consider some aspect of Exchange 2003. While this book is firmly focused on Exchange 2007, the vast majority of companies that will deploy Exchange 2007 will do so by migrating from Exchange 2003 and will therefore run both products alongside each other for some period. For large organizations, the period might extend to a year or more as it is unlikely that few will complete their migration to a pure Exchange 2007 environment quickly. With this in mind, it is fair and reasonable to document how things work with Exchange 2003, especially when these servers operate with Exchange 2007. So what is in the book? To set the context, Chapter 1 starts with an overview of the development of Exchange from 4.0 to 2007 and then describes the themes that Microsoft employed to focus the development priorities for Exchange 2007 and some of the changes that occur in this release. All successful deployments of Exchange since Exchange 2000 operate on a solid Active Directory foundation, so Chapter 2 reviews some of the critical intersection points between Exchange and the Active Directory including replication, the schema, and Global Catalogs. Chapter 3 goes into the basics of managing Exchange 2007 through the Exchange Management Console. Chapter 4 takes the management topic further by exploring the ins and outs of the new Exchange Management Shell, perhaps the most fundamental change to the product that Microsoft has made in Exchange 2007. Chapter 5 goes to the heart of Exchange and reviews how the Store works including topics such as databases, storage groups, and transaction logs to content indexing and backups. Chapter 6 looks at how the new transport system routes messages and includes topics such as the Edge server and anti-spam protection. Chapter 7 explains how clients from Outlook to Outlook Web Access to mobile devices allow users to work with their mailboxes. Chapter 8 then moves on to consider some elements of user management, including the important topic of compliance and records management. Chapter 9 addresses one of the more

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70-483 Q&A / Study Guide / Videos / Testing Engine

You work as a senior developer at The network consists of a single domain named
You are running a training exercise for junior developers. You are currently discussing the use of
the Queue <T> collection type.
Which of the following is TRUE with regards to the Queue <T>collection type?

A. It represents a first in, first out (FIFO) collection of objects.
B. It represents a last in, first out (LIFO) collection of objects.
C. It represents a collection of key/value pairs that are sorted by key based on the associated
IComparer<T> implementation.
D. It represents a list of objects that can be accessed by index.

Answer: A


You work as a developer at The network consists of a single domain named
You have written the following code segment:
int[] filteredEmployeeIds = employeeIds.Distinct().Where(value => value !=
employeeIdToRemove).OrderByDescending(x => x).ToArray();
Which of the following describes reasons for writing this code? (Choose two.)

A. To sort the array in order from the highest value to the lowest value.
B. To sort the array in order from the lowest value to the highest value.
C. To remove duplicate integers from the employeeIds array.
D. To remove all integers from the employeeIds array.

Answer: A,C


You work as a senior developer at The network consists of a single domain
You are running a training exercise for junior developers. You are currently discussing the use of a
method that moves the SqlDataReader on to the subsequent record.
Which of the following is the SqlDataReader method that allows for this?

A. The Read method.
B. The Next method.
C. The Result method.
D. The NextResult method.

Answer: A


You work as a developer at The network consists of a single domain named
You have received instructions to create a custom collection for Objects in the
collection must be processed via a foreach loop.
Which of the following is TRUE with regards to the required code?

A. The code should implement the ICollection interface.
B. The code should implement the IComparer interface.
C. The code should implement the IEnumerable interface.
D. The code should implement the IEnumerator interface.

Answer: C


You work as a senior developer at The network consists of a single domain named
You are running a training exercise for junior developers. You are currently discussing the use of LINQ queries.
Which of the following is NOT considered a distinct action of a LINQ query?

A. Creating the query.
B. Obtaining the data source.
C. Creating the data source.
D. Executing the query.

Answer: C


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70-417 Q&A / Study Guide / Testing Engine / Videos

You work as a Network Administrator at The network contains a single Active Directory
Domain Services (AD DS) domain named The network includes servers that run
Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Windows Server 2012.
All servers in the network have Windows Remote Management (WinRM) enabled.
You use a Windows 7 Enterprise client computer named Certkingdom-Admin1.
You are currently logged in to Certkingdom-Admin1. From your client computer, you want to obtain the IP
address of a Windows Server 2012 member server named Certkingdom-File1.
Which command or commands should you use?

A. Telnet Certkingdom-File1 ipconfig.
B. NSLookup > Server Certkingdom-File1 > ipconfig
C. WinRM –r:Certkingdom-File1 ipconfig
D. WinRS –r:Certkingdom-File1 ipconfig

Answer: D


Your role of Network Administrator at includes the management of the Active Directory
Domain Services (AD DS) domain named The network includes servers that run
Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Windows Server 2012.
A server named Certkingdom-Win12Admin runs Windows Server 2012. You use Certkingdom-Win12Admin to
administer the Windows Server 2012 servers in the domain.
A newly installed domain member server named Certkingdom-SRV06 runs a Server Core Installation of
Windows Server 2012.
You need to configure Certkingdom-SRV06 to enable you to use the Server Manager console on CertkingdomWin12Admin
to manage Certkingdom-Win12Admin.
How should you configure Certkingdom-SRV06?

A. You should install the Remote Server Administration Tools on Certkingdom-SRV06.
B. You should install the Server Manager console on Certkingdom-SRV06.
C. You should enable Windows Remote Management (WinRM) on Certkingdom-SRV06.
D. You should use the Enable-NetFirewallRule cmdlet to configure the firewall on Certkingdom-SRV06.

Answer: D


Your role of Network Administrator at includes the management of the Active Directory
Domain Services (AD DS) domain named The network includes servers that run
Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Windows Server 2012.
A server named Certkingdom-Win12Admin runs Windows Server 2012. You use Certkingdom-Win12Admin to
administer the Windows Server 2012 servers in the domain.
You want to use Server Manager on Certkingdom-Win12Admin to manage the Window Server 2008 R2
SP1 servers in the domain.
What should you do?

A. You should run the Configure-SMRemoting.exe –Enable cmdlet on the Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 servers.
B. You should add the computer account for Certkingdom-Win12Admin to the RAS and IAS Servers group in Active Directory.
C. You should install the Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 and Windows Management Framework 3.0 on the Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 servers.
D. You should install the Remote Server Administration Tools on Certkingdom-Win12Admin.

Answer: C


Your role of Network Administrator at includes the management of the Active Directory
Domain Services (AD DS) domain named The network includes servers that run
Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Windows Server 2012.
A server named Certkingdom-File1 runs the File and Storage Services server role. Certkingdom-File1 hosts
shared folders on the D: drive. Users access the shared folders from their Windows 7 client
A user attempts to recover a previous version of a file in a shared folder on Certkingdom-File1 but
discovers that there is no previous versions option.
How can you ensure that users can recover files using the Previous Versions function?

A. By modifying the Share Properties of each shared folder.
B. By enabling Shadow Copies on the D: drive of Certkingdom-File1.
C. By adding a condition to the shared folders on Certkingdom-File1.
D. By modifying the settings of the Recycle Bin on Certkingdom-File1.

Answer: B


You work for a company named Your role of Network Administrator includes the
management of the company’s physical and virtual infrastructure.
The network includes servers running Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) and
Windows Server 2012.
Virtual machines (VMs) are hosted on Windows Server 2012 servers running the Hyper-V role.
You install a new Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V host server named Certkingdom-HVHost12. CertkingdomHVHost12
has four Fiber Channel host bus adapters (HBAs) and connects to two Fiber Channel
SANs using two HBAs per SAN.
You plan to create VMs on Certkingdom-HVHost12 that will need to access one of the SANs.
How should you configure Certkingdom-HVHost12?

A. By creating a Virtual Switch in Hyper-V.
B. By installing an additional host bus adapter (HBA).
C. By creating a virtual Fiber Channel SAN in Hyper-V.
D. By creating a virtual iSCSI SAN in Hyper-V.

Answer: C


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Geek of All Trades: The new certifications

There’s a whole “new” crop of reconfigured and reclassified Microsoft certification exams, but how much has the focus and the gravitas changed?
Greg Shields

The Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) is back, but does this mark a return to the good old days? Microsoft’s resurrection of the long-treasured MCSE could reignite certification’s glory days of long lines at testing centers and sold-out classrooms. The biggest question is: Do certifications still matter? And will today’s test objectives stand above the issues experienced by the last generation of MCSE-certified IT professionals?

Those questions will be fully answered in time. For now, though, we can peer deeply into the variety of new MCSEs with an eye toward the technologies Microsoft deems important. If you haven’t looked yet, you might be surprised at the focus of their attention.
I say “‘Cloud,’ you say ‘System Center’
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The Microsoft certification overview Web site states the new generation of MCSEs has been reinvented “to maintain their market relevance as the industry shifts to the cloud.” The cloud is in fact a central theme in all of the current literature regarding the new certification program. The previous Microsoft IT professional certifications, the Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS) and Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), are categorized under Microsoft Certifications. The new Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) and MCSE certs are referred to as Microsoft Cloud-built Certifications.

While that distinction might be important to Microsoft, I wonder how it will be percieved by the everyday IT professional. Many don’t yet see themselves as caretakers of a cloud-based datacenter, although many work within virtual environments that fit the definition—more or less.

Dig a bit deeper and you’ll find the term “cloud” has special meaning for Microsoft. Look through the objectives in any new-generation MCSE exam. You’ll likely surmise that for Microsoft, “Cloud-built” does in fact mean “System Center.”

Microsoft Exam 70-415 is an excellent example. This exam is the first of two (the other being 70-416) required to upgrade a new-generation MCSA to an MCSE: Desktop Infrastructure. While you can easily accomplish the majority of objectives atop Windows Server 2012 by itself, a remarkable few require System Center experience.

For example, the 70-415 objective, “Implement Zero Touch deployment,” is a task you can only accomplish with the help of System Center Configuration Manager. Another objective, titled “Implement an updates infrastructure,” requires actions in Configuration Manager and System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM). Objectives in 70-416 include references to App-V (“Manage application virtualization environments” and “Design and implement a resilient virtual application delivery infrastructure”), as well as Configuration Manager (“Deploy applications to the desktop” and “Plan and implement application updates”).

The days are gone when a prospective MCSE could learn everything he needed from Windows Server. Getting MCSE-certified these days requires myriad “other” skills that will require additional effort.
MCSA: The new MCSE

It’s worth mentioning that the MCSE prerequisite certification—the MCSA—doesn’t appear to have the same focus on System Center. While System Center experience doesn’t appear necessary for a prospective MCSA test-taker, a casual review of objectives reveals a more mature MCSA. This isn’t your father’s entry-level certification. The objective domains in this generation’s MCSA exams feel eerily similar to those in the last generation’s MCSE.

Obtaining the MCSA requires passing three exams: Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 (70-410), Administering Windows Server 2012 (70-411), and Configuring Advanced Windows Server 2012 Services (70-412). Passing these three now requires a broader range of topics that will greatly challenge the last generation’s “paper MCSEs.”

For example, answering the questions in the 70-411 exam (Administering Windows Server 2012) requires knowledge across a wide array of technologies with acronyms such as WDS, WSUS, DCS, DFS, FSRM, ERS, DNS, VPNs, NPS, NAP, SPNs, UGMC, RODCs, GPOs, CSEs and even a little DirectAccess to boot. As a test-taker, if these acronyms mean nothing, you’ve got a long road ahead. Obtaining today’s MCSA might indeed be just as challenging as obtaining the last generation’s MCSE.
MCSE ‘flavors’


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The new MCSE has evolved beyond its original intent, so that realization is actually a good thing. An oft-noted problem of the last MCSE was its binary nature. You either had it, or you didn’t. As a consequence, the process of attainment became less important than the actual attaining. Jane may have taken a more challenging path to her certification, involving elective tests in obtuse and complex technologies. John chose Network Essentials and IIS. At the end of the day, though, both are MCSEs.

The new MCSE program attempts to change that perception by eliminating the previous generation’s electives. Replacing them is a variety of “flavors” of the MCSE. A candidate with server experience can obtain an MCSE: Server Infrastructure by taking one path. Another who focuses on desktops can take another path for the MCSE: Desktop Infrastructure. There are MCSE: SQL Server 2012 and MCSE: Private Cloud certifications also available.

One assumes that each of these new flavors better focuses the proven skills of the certification holder on the topics of interest to that person’s employer or potential employers.
‘A mile wide and an inch deep’

One of these flavors merits special attention due to its focus on essentially everything within the Microsoft wheelhouse—MCSE: Private Cloud. Among the range of new certifications, this one is a bit of an enigma. Its test objectives bring to mind a saying long ago associated with the objectives in the (ISC)2 CISSP exam: “They’re a mile wide and an inch deep.”

Like all flavors of the MCSE, obtaining the MCSE: Private Cloud first requires obtaining an MCSA. The difference here, however, is that that MCSA is in Windows Server 2008. The current MCSE: Private Cloud also notably tests against Windows Server 2008 R2 technologies and not Windows Server 2012. Then, you’ll need to complete two exams. One is 70-247 (Configuring and Deploying a Private Cloud with System Center 2012), and the other is 70-246 (Monitoring and Operating a Private Cloud with System Center 2012).

This MCSE is different in part because its focus is almost entirely on System Center technologies. It even tests against the core hypervisor that sits on Windows Server 2008 R2. To pass 70-247, you’ll need to know Hyper-V. You’ll also need experience in almost the entire System Center suite, including VMM, Data Protection Manager, App Controller, Service Manager, App-V and Operations Manager. Only Configuration Manager appears to be absent from the objectives.

Whereas the 70-247 exam focuses on laying down the building blocks for a private cloud, 70-246 tests on monitoring and operations. A review of its objectives reveals that it tests against the same System Center components in this exam as in the other one (with the exception of Orchestrator, which has been added to one objective domain). Only the tasks you’ll be accomplishing with those System Center components are different. As its name suggests, you won’t be building your private cloud here. You’ll be automating its operations.
Breadth of topics: a challenge for the classroom approach?

The Microsoft certification program has historically aligned its exams with Microsoft Official Academic Courses. That trend doesn’t change with this generation of MCSE. What may change, however, is the efficacy in learning the necessary content via the traditional classroom learning approach.

Bluntly put, there’s a ridiculous amount of content to cover, and the best classroom instructors tend to be those with personal experience in implementing the technologies they teach. That personal experience can be hard to find when the range of testable topics in any exam is so broad across Windows Server and the entire System Center portfolio.

That classroom learning experience might also be hindered by the sheer number of virtual machines (VMs) required to drive all these functions. That count of VMs is exacerbated by an insidious limitation of System Center. Each component must be installed to its own Windows Server instance. Powering them all might require a significant hardware investment for the learning centers that offer the courses. The System Center components are large in number and hungry in hardware requirements. You can’t help but wonder if alternative learning approaches such as prerecorded computer-based training might have an advantage here in best delivering the knowledge transfer.
Re-legitimizing the MCSE

Having said all this, this MCSE is indeed an impressive certification. The breadth of its content can be overwhelming for the typical IT professional just starting out in his career. That same breadth, however, is also this MCSE’s greatest strength. Many last-generation MCSE holders felt betrayed by the diminishing value of their certification effort as scores of minimally experienced individuals lined up with certification papers in hand.

Make no mistake, this MCSE appears to be quite a bit harder to obtain. While that difficulty might not reinvigorate a second explosion in Microsoft IT certification, it does stand to create a smaller and more reliable cadre of experienced and proven IT professionals. That’s the kind of certification legitimacy that ultimately benefits everyone.

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MCITP Overview


The Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP) certification helps validate that an individual has the comprehensive set of skills necessary to perform a particular IT job role, such as database administrator or enterprise messaging administrator. MCITP certifications build on the technical proficiency measured in the Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS) certifications. Therefore, you will earn one or more MCTS certifications on your way to earning an MCITP certification.


MCITP certifications will not be updated for future versions of Microsoft products. In most cases, as an MCITP, you will be eligible for special upgrade paths to new Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) certifications. Microsoft Certified Solution Expert (MCSE) is focused on an experienced professional’s ability to design and build technology solutions in the cloud and on premise.


Your MCITP certification will remain valuable as long as companies are using the technology on which it certifies.





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MCITP candidate profile


MCITP candidates are IT professionals capable of deploying, building, designing, optimizing, and operating technologies for a particular job role. They make the design and technology decisions necessary to ensure successful technology implementation projects.

Why get certified?


Earning a Microsoft Certification helps validate your proven experience and helps you build your career, whether you are new to technology or a seasoned professional. The benefits you receive after earning a Microsoft Certification provide you with opportunities to connect with a vast, global network of Microsoft Certified Professionals (MCPs)


Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP)


The Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP) credential helps validate that an individual has the comprehensive set of skills necessary to perform a particular job role, such as database administrator or enterprise messaging administrator. It provides widely recognized, objective validation of a candidate’s ability to perform critical, current IT job roles by using Microsoft technologies to their best advantage.

These certifications are designed for IT professionals including administrators and support personnel in addition to database specialists (both administrators and developers). To obtain an MCITP certification, you must first obtain one or more prerequisite MCTS certifications, and then pass the qualifying “PRO” exam(s):


Database Administrator


Exam 70-443 (PRO): Designing a Database Server Infrastructure by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005

Exam 70-444 (PRO): Optimizing and Maintaining a Database Administration Solution by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005

Database Developer


PREREQ: MCTS: SQL Server 2005 (70-431)

Exam 70-441 (PRO): Designing Database Solutions by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005

Exam 70-442 (PRO): Designing and Optimizing Data Access by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005


Business Intelligence Developer

PREREQ: MCTS: SQL Server 2005, Business Intelligence Development and Maintenance (70-445)

Exam 70-446 (PRO): Designing a Business Intelligence Solution by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005


Database Administrator 2008

PREREQ: MCTS: SQL Server 2008, Implementation and Maintenance (70-432)

Exam 70-450 (PRO): Designing, Optimizing and Maintaining a Database Server Infrastructure Using Microsoft SQL Server 2008


Database Developer 2008

PREREQ: MCTS: SQL Server 2008, Database Development (70-433)

Exam 70-451 (PRO): Designing Database Solutions and Data Access Using Microsoft SQL Server 2008

Business Intelligence Developer 2008

PREREQ: MCTS: SQL Server 2008, Business Intelligence Development and Maintenance (70-448)

Exam 70-452 (PRO): Designing a Business Intelligence Infrastructure Using Microsoft SQL Server 2008

Enterprise Messaging Administrator 2007

PREREQ: MCTS: Exchange Server 2007 – Configuration (70-236)

Exam 70-237 (PRO): Designing Messaging Solutions with Microsoft Exchange Server 2007

Exam 70-238 (PRO): Deploying Messaging Solutions with Microsoft Exchange Server 2007


Enterprise Messaging Administrator 2010


PREREQ: MCTS: Exchange Server 2010 – Configuration (70-662)

Exam 70-663 (PRO): Designing and Deploying Messaging Solutions with Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

Consumer Support Technician

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows Vista, Configuration (70-620)

Exam 70-623 (PRO): Supporting and Troubleshooting Applications on a Windows Vista Client for Consumer Support Technicians

Enterprise Support Technician

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows Vista, Configuration (70-620)

Exam 70-622 (PRO): Supporting and Troubleshooting Applications on a Windows Vista Client for Enterprise Support Technicians

Windows 7, Enterprise Desktop Support Technician

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows 7, Configuration (70-680)

Exam 70-685 (PRO): Windows 7, Enterprise Desktop Support Technician

Enterprise Desktop Administrator 7

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows 7, Configuration (70-680)

Exam 70-686 (PRO): Windows 7, Enterprise Desktop Administrator

Server Administrator

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Configuration (70-640)

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration (70-642)

Exam 70-646 (PRO): Windows Server 2008, Server Administrator

Enterprise Administrator

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Configuration (70-640)

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration (70-642)

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows Server 2008 Applications Infrastructure Configuration (70-643)

PREREQ: MCTS: Windows 7, Configuring (70-680), OR, MCTS: Windows 7, Deploying Windows and Office 2010 (70-681), OR, MCTS: Windows Vista, Configuration (70-620), OR, MCTS: Business Desktop Deployment (70-624, Retired Exam)

Exam 70-647 (PRO): Windows Server 2008, Enterprise Administrator (70-647)

Windows Server 2008 R2, Virtualization Administrator

Exam 70-693 (PRO): Windows Server 2008 R2, Virtualization Administrator

Enterprise Project Management with Microsoft Office Project Server 2007

PREREQ: MCTS: Managing Projects with Microsoft Office Project 2007 (70-632)

PREREQ: MCTS: Enterprise Project Management with Microsoft Office Project Server 2007 (70-633)

Exam 70-634 (PRO): Microsoft Office Project Server 2007, Managing Projects and Programs


Solution Series


The MCSE and MCSA certifications were reinvented (renamed) by Microsoft on the 11th April. The new certifications are designed to focus on the depth and breadth needed for cloud, on-premise and hybrid solutions. Currently the MCSA and MCSE paths cover SQL Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 and Business Intelligence.

IT Professional (MCITP) upgrades


MCDST to MCITP: Enterprise Support This certification requires that one pass the following examination:

Exam 70-621: PRO: Upgrading Your MCDST Certification to MCITP Enterprise Support

MCDST to MCITP: Enterprise Desktop Support Technician 7 This certification requires that one pass the following examination:

Exam 70-682: Upgrading to Windows 7 MCITP Enterprise Desktop Support Technician

MCDBA to MCITP: Database Administrator This certification requires that one pass the following examination:

Prerequisite: MCTS: Microsoft SQL Server 2005 – Implementation and Maintenance

Exam 70-417: UPGRADE: MCDBA Skills to MCITP Database Administrator by Using Microsoft SQL Server 2005

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If you are interested in the SQL world, then look at the MCITP Business Intelligence Developer 2008 certification. Given that that the SQL world is specialized to begin with, this is a specialty certification within the SQL world!


Best Microsoft MCTS Certification, Microsoft MCITP Training at MCITP certification validates the comprehensive skills that are necessary for performing a particular job specialization role which includes enterprise messaging administration or database administration. MCITP certification also builds up technical proficient that are measured in the Microsoft certification informational technology professional. Microsoft MCITP Certification can bring you recognition and Career growth in the IT industry.


However, getting the certification is not a simple or easy process. There are seven different MCITP exams that must be taken in order to certify you as a Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist. Each MCITP exam must be passed in order to secure the certification. Once you pass the seven MCITP exams, you have the MITP certification for life, and may even apply it towards future certifications from Microsoft that are eligible. There are some wonderful study aids that you can use for the MCITP exam. One of my favorite is the Cert kingdom MCITP Certification MCITP Testing Engine. Not only does the MCITP Testing Engine cover each MCITP exam in mind numbingly explicit detail, but it will also give you practice MCITP exams to help check your readiness levels for each MCITP exam, Best MCITP Training via Testing Engine some features are listed below. * Live Realistic practice MCITP exams * Live Virtual MCITP exam environment * Live Practice MCITP exam environment * Mark unanswered Q&A * Free Life Time Updates * Realistic simulations of practice exams * 100% Success Guaranteed * Mail your MCITP exams results * Re-examine the unanswered Q&A * Make your own MCITP exam scenario (settings) * Get you’re self completely prepared for real MCITP exam * Included in Life Time Membership. The job marketplace of the IT industry, and for that matter all other industries too is becoming tougher and stricter, with no space left for compromises. Companies want to hire the best of professionals. This stands even more true and apt in case of the IT industry because every day, there are new challenges coming up, and there is a need for smart and efficient people who can deal with all obstacles effectively. The industry is growing at a fast rate, and only few have the ability to manage with all kinds of situations. To confirm that you are among the cream of the lot, Microsoft brings the MCITP certification.

MCITP stands for Microsoftcertification informational technology professional. With this certification, you will be able to show technical expertise in a variety of tasks which include Windows Operating System, Microsoft Exchange Server, Microsoft SQL Server, and Microsoft Visual Studio. The MCITP certification ensures that you gain both practical as well as theoretical knowledge. This kind of training helps in knowing and understanding the basic concepts well, and also helps to know their practical application. The MCITP guarantee is for fine-tuning quite a number of skills that you already know; which is precisely the reason why the candidate profile demands at least one to two years of experience in installing, configuring, troubleshooting, building and debugging of any one Microsoft Technology.

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No apps, no success for Windows 8 and RT, say analysts

‘You get just one chance with consumers,’ says expert about app inventory for tablets, convertibles

Computerworld – The success of Windows RT, and to a lesser extent Windows 8, will hinge on the quality and quantity of apps in the Windows Store next month, analysts said today.

And they don’t like what they’ve seen so far.

“History shows that for consumers, the first impression is the one that sticks,” said Patrick Moorhead, principal analyst with Moor Insights & Strategy, referring to app availability. Yet, just weeks before the Oct. 26 launch of Windows 8 and Windows RT, the Windows Store inventory is not only light, but doesn’t include many of the apps consumers see as must-haves, he continued.


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Moorhead pointed out several recent tablet failures, including Hewlett-Packard’s TouchPad and RIM’s BlackBerry PlayBook, and said that one commonality was their lack of high-quality apps. Microsoft risks following in their footsteps if it can’t demonstrate its app store is well-stocked at launch.

“You get just one chance with consumers,” Moorhead argued. “Microsoft is commercial first, consumer second. With the commercial market, you can roll out and then grow [application availability]. But in the consumer market, it has to succeed immediately.”

Other experts also worried about the app situation.

“At the end of the day, it’s all going to come down to the Windows Store,” said Michael Cherry, an analyst with Directions on Microsoft. “There’s been so much wailing and gnashing of teeth over Windows 8, most of it around the ["Modern"] interface, but over time I’m adapting to the UI. But here’s what my big problem is as of today: I have yet to find an app that I just have to have.”

The Windows Store is the only distribution center for Windows 8 and Windows RT apps written for what Microsoft calls the “Modern” interface, the tile-based environment borrowed from Windows Phone. Like Apple’s iOS App Store and its OS X Mac App Store, the Windows Store is curated — Microsoft reviews each submission and is the final arbiter of what can be sold or given way for free.

There are currently just over 1,000 apps in the Windows Store, a far cry from the more than 200,000 in Apple’s App Store written specifically for the iPad.

“Apps are certainly critical,” said Michael Silver, of Gartner, who included a robust app store as one of a handful of must-dos for Microsoft. If the Windows Store isn’t populated by enough apps, or at least enough of the top-selling apps available on other platforms — what Silver called a “critical mass” — Microsoft will have its work cut out for it.

“If they don’t [have the right apps], Windows 8 and Windows RT will be challenged in the consumer market,” said Silver. “But I wouldn’t count them out if they don’t get it right the first time. They’ll just spend another half billion dollars on marketing, and risk [Windows 8/RT] getting a bad reputation, like Vista did. So it’s a lot easier if they get it right the first time.”

Although a lack of apps may affect Windows 8 less than Windows RT, since the former can run traditional, or “legacy” apps on the Windows 7-style desktop, a lightly-stocked Windows Store could stymie sales of touch-based PCs, tablets and so-called “convertibles” — hardware that combines elements of both tablets and notebooks — powered by Windows 8.

“Windows 8 is going to do just fine, particularly because consumers won’t have a choice,” said Moorhead. “But the hardware being trumpeted is not as inexpensive as a tablet, and more expensive than a traditional notebook. People are going to pay more for that touch screen, and they’re going to want to know what kind of apps they can run on it.”

Cherry agreed.

“If there’s little you can do with [a new touch-enabled PC], it will naturally throttle the market,” Cherry said.

Today’s Windows Store situation, of course, won’t be the same on Oct. 26, analysts acknowledged. Both Cherry and Silver believe that Microsoft is purposefully withholding some apps to tout them next month during the launch of the new operating systems.

“We don’t know how many have been submitted, we don’t know what’s in the pipeline,” said Silver. “And that blends into the next point: Windows 8 will be a huge market that developers can’t afford to ignore.”

Even so, Silver wondered why Microsoft hasn’t made more of upcoming apps. “They do need to get stuff in the store pretty soon,” he said. “And while they may be waiting to make some major announcements, we think they need to introduce a major application a week to build momentum.”

The lack of publicity around the Windows Store is puzzling, agreed Moorhead, who blamed Microsoft’s new, more secretive communications strategy, which he has criticized before.

“The level of excitement and the value proposition about Windows 8 has been in question,” Moorhead said. “They’ve changed the way they communicate with the public; they’ve been in ‘stealth’ mode for a long time now. And because of that, there’s a healthy amount of skepticism about Windows 8 out there.”

Silver has noticed the change, too. “Microsoft decided it wanted to be more like Apple [with Windows 8]” he said, ticking off a number of similarities, from the way it debuted the Surface tablets to the “walled garden” approach to apps and the Windows Store. “Part of that is more secrecy,” Silver added.

But the lack of apps could be more than a tactical move, said Cherry, who has been working on a “Modern” app of his own for weeks now.

“Look at the one Office app Microsoft has released, OneNote MX,” said Cherry. “It has minimal functionality. If Microsoft’s own people have trouble creating a good app, I have to assume it’s hard to do.”

Moorhead, too, cited developers as a potential bottleneck.

“A lot of developers will have a wait-and-see attitude about Windows 8,” said Moorhead. “If they’re not seeing their competitors in the Windows Store, they’re not going to be motivated to develop for it.”

And mobile developers don’t grow on trees. “A lot of these developers were first taken by Apple, then shared with Android. So it comes down to how many people are out there who can actually do [Modern apps] at this time,” Moorhead said.

Microsoft first opened the Windows Store in February when it launched Windows 8 Consumer Preview, but restricted submissions to free apps until last month when it released the final RTM, for “release to manufacturing,” code.

As of Saturday, the Windows Store had 1,080 apps, 187 of them paid apps, according to McAkins Online, which tracks the number available.

“But without the right apps, it’s like buying an electric car that you can’t find a plug for,” said Moorhead.


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