70-412 Configuring Advanced Windows Server 2012 Services


QUESTION 1
You are employed as a network administrator at ABC.com. ABC.com has an Active Directory
domain named ABC.com. All servers on the ABC.com network have Windows Server 2012 installed.
ABC.com has a server, named ABC-SR07, which is configured as a DHCP server. You have
created a superscope on ABC-SR07.
Which of the following describes a reason for creating a superscope? (Choose all that apply.)

A. To support DHCP clients on a single physical network segment where multiple logical IP
networks are used.
B. To allow for the sending of network traffic to a group of endpointsdestination hosts.
C. To support remote DHCP clients located on the far side of DHCP and BOOTP relay agents.
D. To provide fault tolerance.

Answer: A,C

Explanation:


QUESTION 2
You are employed as a network administrator at ABC.com. ABC.com has an Active Directory
domain named ABC.com. All servers, including domain controllers, on the ABC.com network have
Windows Server 2012 installed.
ABC.com has a domain controller, named ABC-DC01, which is configured as a DNS server. You
are planning to unsign the ABC.com zone.
Why should you unsign the zone?

A. To remove the zone.
B. To change the current zone type.
C. To add a new primary zone.
D. To create an Active Directory-integrated zone.

Answer: B

Explanation:


QUESTION 3
You are employed as a network administrator at ABC.com. ABC.com has an Active Directory
domain named ABC.com. All servers on the ABC.com network have Windows Server 2012 installed.
ABC.com has a server named ABC-SR01, which hosts the IP Address Management (IPAM)
Server feature. ABC.com also has a server, named ABC-SR02, which is configured as a DHCP server.
You have been instructed to make sure that a user, named Mia Hamm, who belongs to the IPAM
Users group on ABC-SR01, has the ability to modify the DHCP scopes on ABC-SR02 by making
use of use IPAM. You want to achieve this without assigning Mia Hamm any unnecessary permissions.
Which of the following actions should you take?

A. You should consider making Mia Hamm a member of the DHCP Administrators group on ABCSR02.
B. You should consider making Mia Hamm a member of the IPAM Administrators group on ABCSR02.
C. You should consider making Mia Hamm a member of the Local Administrators group on ABCSR02.
D. You should consider making Mia Hamm a member of the Domain Administrators group.

Answer: A

Explanation:


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640-864 Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions Exam (DESGN) v2.1


QUESTION 1
According to Cisco, which four improvements are the main benefits of the PPDIOO lifecycle
approach to network design? (Choose four.)

A. Faster ROI
B. Improved business agility
C. Increased network availability
D. Faster access to applications and services
E. Lower total cost of network ownership
F. Better implementation team engagement

Answer: B,C,D,E

Explanation:
The PPDIOO life cycle provides four main benefits:
+ It improves business agility by establishing business requirements and technology strategies.
+ It increases network availability by producing a sound network design and validating the network
operation.
+ It speeds access to applications and services by improving availability, reliability, security,
scalability, and performance.
+ It lowers the total cost of ownership by validating technology requirements and planning for
infrastructure changes and resource requirements.
(Reference: Cisco CCDA Official Exam Certification Guide, 3rd Edition) described in the link
below.
Link:http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=1608131&seqNum=3


QUESTION 2
Characterizing an existing network requires gathering as much information about the network as
possible. Which of these choices describes the preferred order for the information-gathering
process?

A. Site and network audits, traffic analysis, existing documentation and organizational input
B. Existing documentation and organizational input, site and network audits, traffic analysis
C. Traffic analysis, existing documentation and organizational input, site and network audits
D. Site and network audits, existing documentation and organizational input, traffic analysis

Answer: B

Explanation:
This section describes the steps necessary to characterize the existing network infrastructure and
all sites. This process requires three steps:
Step 1. Gather existing documentation about the network, and query the organization to discover
additional information. Organization input, a network audit, and traffic analysis provide the key
information you need. (Note that existing documentation may be inaccurate.)
Step 2. Perform a network audit that adds detail to the description of the network. If
possible, use traffic-analysis information to augment organizational input when you are describing
the applications and protocols used in the network.
Step 3. Based on your network characterization, write a summary report that describes the health
of the network. With this information, you can propose hardware and software upgrades to support
the network requirements and the organizational requirements.


QUESTION 3
You want to gather as much detail as possible during a network audit with a minimal impact on the
network devices themselves.
Which tool would you use to include data time stamping across a large number of interfaces while
being customized according to each interface?

A. RMON
B. SNMPv3
C. NetFlow
D. Cisco Discovery Protocol

Answer: C

Explanation:


QUESTION 4
Which three are considered as technical constraints when identifying network requirements?
(Choose three.)

A. Support for legacy applications
B. Bandwidth support for new applications
C. Limited budget allocation
D. Policy limitations
E. Limited support staff to complete assessment
F. Support for existing legacy equipment
G. Limited timeframe to implement

Answer: A,B,F

Explanation:
Network design might be constrained by parameters that limit the solution. Legacy applications
might still exist that must be supported going forward, and these applications might require a
legacy protocol that may limit a design. Technical constraints include the following:
Existing wiring does not support new technology.
Bandwidth might not support new applications.
The network must support exiting legacy equipment.
Legacy applications must be supported (application compatibility).


QUESTION 5
In which phase of PPDIOO are the network requirements identified?

A. Design
B. Plan
C. Prepare
D. Implement
E. Operate
F. Optimize

Answer: B

Explanation:

Plan Phase
The Plan phase identifies the network requirements based on goals, facilities, and user needs.
This phase characterizes sites and assesses the network, performs a gap analysis against bestpractice
architectures, and looks at the operational environment. A project plan is developed to
manage the tasks, responsible parties, milestones, and resources to do the design and
implementation. The project plan aligns with the scope, cost, and resource parameters established
with the original business requirements. This project plan is followed (and updated) during all
phases of the cycle.


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1Y0-A25: Engineering a Citrix Virtualization Solution Exam


QUESTION 1
Scenario: A Citrix Engineer is configuring a new XenApp 6.5 farm in order to provide the Sales
department with access to a new CRM application. There are 400 users who will be accessing the
application, and the application load testing shows 512 MB of RAM utilization for each user during
peak time. XenApp will be installed on virtual machines, and the virtual machines will be hosted on
XenServer hosts.
All three of the XenServer hosts have the following hardware specifications:
1. Dual 6 core CPU
2. 96 GB of RAM
3. 300 GB SAN storage
The Citrix Engineer needs to ensure that users can access their XenApp resources in the event of
a server hardware failure.
Based on Citrix Best Practices, what would be the recommended configuration?

A. Create a pool with three hosts.
B. Create three pools with one host each.
C. Create a pool with two hosts and enable HA.
D. Create a pool with three hosts and enable HA.

Answer: D

Explanation:


QUESTION 2
Scenario: A Citrix Engineer needs to set up logging to monitor a Workload Balancing related issue
in a XenServer implementation. The engineer wants to capture maximum detail about this issue
before reporting it to Citrix Technical Support.
To increase the level of detail that will be captured in the log file, the engineer should _________
and __________. (Choose the two correct options to complete the sentence.)

A. open wlb.conf in a text editor
B. open logfile.log in a text editor
C. open auditlog.out in a text editor
D. modify the configuration options
E. enable logging for a specific trace

Answer: A,E

Explanation:


QUESTION 3
Scenario: Nether Tech has a XenDesktop farm with Windows 7 desktops. Users are accessing
their virtual desktops from different bandwidth and latency connection types.
Which setting should the engineer configure in a Citrix User policy in order to optimize moving
images?

A. Enable Adaptive Display. Disable Progressive Display.
B. Disable Adaptive Display. Disable Progressive Display.
C. Enable Adaptive Display. Enable Progressive Display with Low Compression.
D. Disable Adaptive Display. Enable Progressive Display with Low Compression.

Answer: A

Explanation:


QUESTION 4
Scenario: Nether Tech’s corporate policy requires that passwords are NOT requested for XenApp
passthrough connections, except for those that pertain to members of the Nursing Users group.
Nurses connect to XenApp servers hosting applications in the Nurses Worker Group.
Click the Exhibit button to view a list of the policies configured in the environment.

An engineer needs to prioritize the three policies so that only members of the Nurses group are
prompted for passwords when they connect to their XenApp resources.
What is the correct order of prioritization for the policies from lowest to highest?

A. Unfiltered, Nurses, Corporate Users
B. Corporate Users, Nurses, Unfiltered
C. Unfiltered, Corporate Users, Nurses
D. Nurses, Unfiltered, Corporate Users

Answer: D

Explanation:


QUESTION 5
Scenario: Nether Tech recently upgraded to XenDesktop 5.5 and implemented a new VoIP
system. Virtual desktops have been integrated with the VoIP system. RTA (Real-time Audio) over
UDP has also been configured.
Which two steps should a Citrix Engineer take to optimize RTA/UDP traffic in the XenDesktop
implementation? (Choose two.)

A. Create a Citrix User policy.
B. Create a Citrix Computer policy.
C. Enable Multi-Stream in the policy.
D. Increase overall session bandwidth limit.
E. Set the audio redirection bandwidth limit in the policy.

Answer: B,C

Explanation:


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3 easy Linux alternatives for Windows XP refugees who don’t want a new PC

Keep your old PC, and keep it safe, with one of these Linux distros. After all, a free, user-friendly OS is better than an unsupported one.

Windows XP’s refugees have two choices on April 8, when Microsoft stops supporting the decade-old operating system (for consumers, anyway). This is assuming a new PC with a new operating system (even Windows 7) is, for whatever reason, out of the question. They could cling desperately to their old Windows XP system and face what could be a hacker feeding frenzy, something we don’t recommend even if you take precautions. Or they could keep the old PC but install a new, free, and safe operating system–otherwise known as Linux.

Linux has a reputation for being designed for geeks only, but that’s old history. Many modern Linux distributions exceed the user-friendliness of XP, and they’re free to download. If you don’t like the feel of one, you can easily switch to another. What’s more, each Linux distribution comes loaded with useful software such as productivity suites, modern browsers like Chrome or Firefox, and photo and music management apps.

A note about installing Linux
The three Linux distributions we’re recommending for displaced Windows XP users are all based on Ubuntu, which is widely considered to be the world’s most popular version of Linux.

Ubuntu provides a solid, well-maintained software base that works well on older hardware, and its Live CD installer is a breeze to get up and running. Combine that with Ubuntu’s stocked Software Center–which features one-click app installs–and it’s an obvious, easy solution for migrating XP refugees.

Take heed: Although these Linux distributions are designed for aging PCs, they may still be too much for truly ancient PCs that have somehow survived intact until 2014.

Thankfully, each Linux distro below comes with an option to “try before you buy” by booting and running the OS directly from an installation CD or USB drive. When you’ve chosen one, you can fully install it to your hard drive–after backing up all your personal files, of course.

Ubuntu’s website has a tutorial on how to burn your own Live CD using Windows XP. Note that running an OS off a Live CD tends to be much slower than running an installed OS. Pay less attention to responsiveness and more attention to how you like the software and interface of each distro.

Zorin OS
Official system requirements :
1GHz or faster processor
5GB of hard drive space
512MB of RAM
Graphics card capable of 640-by-480 resolution

Beyond its modest system requirements, Zorin is one of several Linux distributions that offers a “Windows XP” mode to ease your transition, approximating the general look and feel of Windows XP as best it can. To activate it, click on Start (Z) > System Tools > Zorin Look Changer.

In XP mode, The “Z” button in the lower-left corner mimics an XP-style Start menu, organized similarly to Microsoft’s OS–including the all-important option to power down the PC. Zorin’s Start-menu doppelganger also has an All Applications option, along with quick links to your Documents, Pictures, and Music.

Likewise, the panel at the bottom of the screen behaves like the Windows taskbar, complete with a notifications area that shows the time, battery power, current keyboard language, and other system functions. All of these interface clues should comfort XP refugees as they arrive in this foreign environment.A Zorin uses Google Chrome as its default web browser.

But Zorin, like all other Linux distributions, is definitely not Windows XP. The file system is not organized in the same way. Traditional Windows software doesn’t work on Linux (though our guides toA popular Ubuntu software,Linux Office alternatives, and Linux gaming can help you find all the programs you need for work and play alike). Finally, though Ubuntu’s user-friendly Software Center helps–it lets you install apps with just a few clicks–installing apps using the Linux-style package system is nothing like installing via a Windows EXE or MSI file.A A

Our Ubuntu guide for displaced Windows users can help you get over the learning curve if you wind up needing help with any of these Ubuntu-derived operating systems.

LXLE
Official system requirements:
Pentium 3 processor or better
512MB RAM

LXLE’s claim to fame is that it’s capable of reviving an old PC by minimizing the demands it puts on system resources, and it has even more accommodating hardware requirements than the already-lightweight Zorn. LXE is based on Lubuntu, which is the official “light” variant of Ubuntu.

Just like Zorin, LXLE offers a Windows XP mode that you can choose right from the login screen, though LXLE also includes options to mirror OS X and an interesting netbook mode. In XP mode, LXLE doesn’t go quite as far as Zorin does in replicating the Windows Start menu, but it collates all the options you’d expect to find.

The LXLE panel serves admirably well as a stand-in for the taskbar. LXLE’s simpler interface lacks the flashiness of Zorin–a trait that may appeal to some. LXLE hands web surfing duties over to Firefox by default.

Ubuntu
Official system requirements:
700MHz processor
512MB RAM
Minimum display resolution of 1024 by 768 pixels

Of the three distributions covered here, Ubuntu is the least similar to Windows XP. In fact, it’s pretty much nothing like XP at all. But since it’s the most popular Linux distro around, Ubuntu’s certainly worth including in this discussion–especially since it’s free and has minimal hardware requirements, just like Zorin and LXLE.

Ubuntu is closer to the look and feel of Apple’s OS X, so Windows XP immigrants may feel a little lost. Ubuntu has a very user-friendly design that can be learned in short order, however, and that’s augmented by a large body of helpful support resources, including forums, blog posts, and live chat rooms.

One major Ubuntu difference that could flummox XP users is the way you access your software. The operating system hides its programs under a search feature called the Dash, which is opened by clicking on the Ubuntu logo in the upper-left corner.

Ubuntu is not designed to show you a Start menu-esuqe list of apps, though. Instead, like OS X’s Spotlight, the Dash lets you search for a program quicklyA by name and then click on the result to open it. That’s a very different approach than the Windows standard practice of clicking on “All Programs” and opening your software from there. Ubuntu’s Home Folder lets you browse your hard drive in Windows File Explorer-like fashion, however.

Like LXLE, Ubuntu’s default browser is Mozilla Firefox. And did I mention you can make Ubuntu look like Windows 7?

Stick with XP at your peril
These three versions of Linux may be the most friendly choices for displaced Windows XP users, but there’s one more worth considering. Puppy Linux is a popular option for running an OS on older hardware. With three variants available at any given time, however, figuring out Puppy is not as easy as Zorin, LXLE, and Ubuntu.

So there you go: If you can’t or won’t leave Windows XP behind, give one of these Linux distributions a try. All you’ve got to lose is an aging operating system that will soon be thrown to the wolves.


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Why IBM thinks Windows Phone is best for the enterprise

As BlackBerry fades out, Microsoft’s phone is the choice of enterprises to replace it.

The BYOD movement is how Apple got into the enterprise, but if it were up to IT pros, you’d be issued a Windows Phone. That’s what IBM has found in its work with large firms.

Jim Szafranski, senior VP of customer platform services at IBM’s FIberlink unit, told Redmond Mag that many of its enterprise customers would like to see their employees use Windows Phone for work-related activities because of its tight integration with Microsoft’s back-end systems, but he added that WP continues to trail in popularity to that of iPhones and Android devices.

“Actual end user momentum is trailing business interest,” Szafranski said. “IT likes Microsoft and likes Windows. They’ve made a lot of investment in things like Active Directory and Exchange and as a result they have a lot of interest in seeing Windows Phone used by employees. I don’t think anyone is going to be all Windows on mobile, but enterprises do want it and I think they have a strong opportunity when it comes to the enterprise side of purchase decisions.”

Windows Phone’s base remains smaller, at just 3% of the market at the end of Q4 2013, according to IDC. Still, that was a 46% growth over the year prior, but it’s still being greatly outpaced by Android and iPhone. Android has ubiquity, iPhone has Apple’s cool factor. Windows Phone can’t seem to grab either.

IBM recently acquired Fiberlink Communications, maker of the MaaS360 mobile device management platform, and it was the strong IT interest in Windows Phone that made IBM decide to support WP, even with its meager installed base, Szafranski said. The company announced the addition of WP to the MaaS360 product line at the recent Mobile World Congress show in Barcelona and at the IBM Pulse conference in Las Vegas.

The company’s MaaS360 Productivity Suite provides secure email, calendaring, contacts and a browser. This lets IT separate personal apps and data from enterprise software and information. Should the need arise, IT can remotely manage or wipe the enterprise side of the phone while leaving the user’s personal data and apps untouched.

Windows Phone 8 has some significant enterprise-oriented features, which IBM and its customers have clearly recognized. WP8 supports the United Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) secure boot protocol and advanced app “sandboxing” to isolate apps within the phone. It has hardware-accelerated BitLocker technology to encrypt the entire device, Exchange ActiveSync management, Active Directory and Group Policy features for remote management, and Skype/VoIP integration.

The big question now is whether IBM will take up the flag for WP. It has no dog in this fight since it does not sell handsets. IBM is, for all intents and purposes, a services and software company. Hardware sales are now in the single-digits with the x86 server divestiture. Microsoft couldn’t ask for a better ally. A seriously ironic one, given their histories, but a major ally none the less.


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9A0-041 Adobe Acrobat 7.0 Professional Print Production ACE Exam


QUESTION 1
Which statement is true about flattening transparency in a native PDF document and flattening
transparency in Distiller?

A. Live transparency is automatically flattened by Distiller.
B. Transparency CANNOT be flattened in a native PDF.
C. You CANNOT flatten transparency from within Distiller.
D. Flattened transparency is NOT recognized by Distiller.

Answer: C


QUESTION 2
You have created a presentation in PowerPoint. You want to post it on the Internet, where it will be
accessed by members of your traveling sales force. Which Application Setting in the Adobe
PDF Maker dialog box should you select to make this document available to the largest number of
salespeople?

A. Save Slide Transitions in Adobe PDF
B. Convert Multimedia to PDF Multimedia
C. PDF Layout Based on PowerPoint Printer Settings
D. Enable Accessibility and Reflow with Tagged PDF

Answer: D


QUESTION 3
What happens when you select Optimize for Fast Web View in the File Options section of the
General panel in Distiller?

A. Color photographs are down sampled.
B. The PDF file is structured.
C. The Postscript file’s resolution is queried.
D. Thumbnails are generated.

Answer: B


QUESTION 4
Which is searched by default in a PDF document by using either the Find toolbar or the Search
PDF window?

A. document properties
B. form fields
C. XMP metadata
D. object data

Answer: B


QUESTION 5
What is the most efficient way to create a PDF document from a Word document suitable for high
quality print production and/or separation?

A. use the Adobe PDF printer and choose the Smallest File Size job option
B. use PDF Maker and choose the Press Quality job option
C. create PDF from File in Acrobat and choose the High Quality job option
D. use Distiller and choose the Standard job option

Answer: B


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The greatest security story never told — how Microsoft’s SDL saved Windows

‘We actually had to bus in engineers.’

Microsoft has launched a new website to “tell the untold story” of something it believes changed the history of Windows security and indeed Microsoft itself – the Software Development Lifecycle or plain ‘SDL’ for short.

For those who have never heard of the SDL, or don’t have the remotest idea why it might be important, the new site offers some refreshingly candid insights to change their minds.

Without buying into the hype, the SDL can still fairly be described as the single initiative that saved Redmond’s bacon at a moment of huge uncertainty in 2002 and 2003. Featuring video interviews with some of its instigators and protagonists, the new site offers outsiders a summary of how and why Microsoft decided to stop being a software firm and become a software and security firm in order to battle the malware that was suddenly smashing into its software.

Few outside the firm knew of the crisis unfolding inside its campus but not everyone was surprised. Microsoft now traces the moment the penny dropped to the early hours of a summer morning in 2001, only weeks before it was due to launch Windows XP to OEMs.

“It was 2 a.m. on Saturday, July 13, 2001, when Microsoft’s then head of security response, Steve Lipner, awoke to a call from cybersecurity specialist Russ Cooper. Lipner was told a nasty piece of malware called “Code Red” was spreading at an astonishing rate. Code Red was a worm a malicious computer program that spreads quickly by copying itself to other computers across the Internet. And it was vicious.”

Others arrived in the following two years; the Blaster worm, Nimda, Code Red II, MyDoom, Sasser, and on and on. To a world and a Microsoft not used to the notion of malware being a regular occurrence, this was all a big shock.

By January 2002, with attacks on its baby XP humbling the biggest software firm on earth, Bill Gates sent his famous Trustworthy Computing (TwC) memo to everyone at Microsoft. From now on, security was going to be at the root of everything and so help us God.

That turned into the SDL, and it was given priority one to the extent that it took over the whole 8,500-person Windows development team for much of that year and the next. Its ambition was to completely change the way Microsoft made software so that as few programming errors were made that had to be fixed once customers were involved; “security could not continue to be a retroactive exercise.”

Users had also started complaining. Loudly.

“I remember at one point our local telephone network struggled to keep up with the volume of calls we were getting. We actually had to bus in engineers,” the site quotes its security VP Matt Thomlinson as saying.

The fruit of the SDL was XP’s first Service Pack in 2002, followed up by the even more fundamental security overhaul of SP2 in 2004. By then, XP had been equipped with a software firewall, an almost unthinkable feature for an OS three years eariler.

It’s arguable that despite the undoubted gains of the SDL since then, that the firm has yet to fully recover from the trauma of the period. Windows development has seemed less and less certain ever since, following up XP with the flawed Vista and more recent Windows 8 near-debacle. Microsoft still does operating systems but it’s not clear that all its users do.

Still, the SDL programme has proved hugely influential even if it’s not well known outside tech circles. It is now baked into everything. It has also influenced many other software houses and many have versions of the SDL of their own, many modelled on Microsoft’s published framework on how to run secure development.

Whatever mis-steps Microsoft has made in the last decade, security has turned into a bit of a success story right down to the firm’s pioneering and hugely important Digital Crimes Unit (DCU) that conducts the forensics necessary to track down the people who write malware in their caves. Both the SDL and DCU are seen as world leaders.

So let’s hear of for Redmond, the software giant that launched an operating system years behind the criminals but somehow clawed itself back from disaster. Most other firms would have wilted but somehow Gates’s memo rallied the cubicle army.


 

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70-332 Advanced Solutions of Microsoft SharePoint Server 2013

 


QUESTION 1
You are instructed to make sure that the prerequisites with regards to the MyABC.ABC.com site
and the creation of site collections are suitably met.
You have Setup My Sites setting for the User Profile service application to make use of the URL of
the My Site host site collection.
Which of the following actions should you take NEXT?

A. You should consider configuring the Explicit exclusion type.
B. You should consider configuring the Explicit inclusion type.
C. You should consider configuring the Wildcard exclusion type.
D. You should consider configuring the Wildcard inclusion type.

Answer: B

Explanation:


QUESTION 2
You are preparing to configure authentication for the ABC360.ABC.com site as per the
requirements.
Which of the following actions should you take FIRST?

A. You should consider creating a new PerformancePoint target application.
B. You should consider creating a new Secure Store target application.
C. You should consider creating a new PerformancePoint target application.
D. You should consider creating a new Word Automation target application.

Answer: B

Explanation:


QUESTION 3
You have been instructed to make sure that language support meets the prerequisites.
Which of the following actions should you take?

A. You should consider creating one label and setting the locale to English (US).
B. You should consider creating one label and setting the locale to Dutch (HOL).
C. You should consider creating one label and setting the locale to French (FRA).
D. You should consider creating two labels and setting the locale of one label to English (US) and
the other to Dutch (HOL).

Answer: A

Explanation:


QUESTION 4
You have been asked to make sure that developers are assigned the correct permissions as per
the prerequisites.

A. You should consider making use of the Set Metadata Store Permissions option to assign the
Full permissions.
B. You should consider making use of the Set Metadata Store Permissions option to assign the
Read permissions.
C. You should consider making use of the Set Metadata Store Permissions option to assign the
Edit permissions.
D. You should consider making use of the Set Metadata Store Permissions option to assign the
Write permissions.

Answer: C

Explanation:


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The paranoid’s survival guide, part 1: How to protect your personal data

Who says privacy is dead? While it’s true that marketers, the government, data aggregators and others are gathering and analyzing more data than ever about every individual, you can still exert some control over what’s out there, who’s tracking you and what they do with that information.

From the NSA’s admission that it is capturing and analyzing metadata on every American to Facebook’s appropriation of users’ posts, likes and images for use in product advertising endorsements, privacy concerns are now top of mind. According to a December Harris Interactive survey commissioned by privacy consultancy Truste, 74% of Internet users are more worried about privacy now than they were a year ago. Some 74% also say they are less likely to enable location tracking on the Web, 83% are less likely to click on online ads and 80% say they are less likely to use apps they don’t trust.

Consumers’ privacy concerns
What people are most afraid of. All percentages are up compared to last year. The study was conducted by Harris Interactive, on behalf of Truste, with more than 2,000 U.S. internet users polled in December 2013.

Online shopping – 93%

Online banking – 90%

Using social media – 90%

Using mobile apps – 85%

Truste 2014 Consumer Confidence Privacy Report
Computerworld asked nine people who live and breathe privacy what steps they recommend to get a handle on your personal data footprint — both offline and online. Some steps are easy, while others require both time and expertise to set up.

The key, these experts say, is to know what your goals are and go for the low-hanging fruit first. “If your goal is perfection, you’ll end up doing nothing. Look for good enough,” says Jules Polonetsky, executive director of the Future of Privacy Forum.

There are three primary reasons why people want to reduce their footprint, Polonetsky says. One is to hide from marketers. Another is personal security. Some people have good reason to be cautious about their identity, including those worried about domestic violence or stalkers. That takes a bit more work.

But the most extreme measures are generally reserved for people who have reason to worry that they might be targeted by the NSA, or by law enforcement, or be the subject of civil proceedings. For the latter group, Polonetsky says, the required measures are more difficult to set up and use — and the techniques may degrade the user’s experience online.

Fortunately, most people don’t need to go to these extremes. “Complete privacy is very difficult and expensive to achieve. But reasonable privacy — minimizing your footprint — is easier to achieve than you might think,” says Rob Shavell, co-founder and CEO at privacy software vendor Abine.

The information out there about you out falls into three basic categories, Shavell says:

Data that’s implicitly collected, such as the many services that track your browsing activity online

Data that’s explicitly collected, such as when you knowingly give out your email address and other data when signing up for a service online

Publicly available information about you that can be harvested by data collectors online, such as your phone number and address, Twitter feed, Facebook profile and public posts, court and property deed records and so on

The first step toward minimizing your online footprint is to know who’s tracking you. Tools like Disconnect and Mozilla’s Lightbeam, which visually show who’s tracking you as you visit different websites, can help, says Sid Stamm, senior engineering manager for security and privacy at Mozilla.

Mozilla’s Lightbeam
Tools like Mozilla’s Lightbeam visually show who’s tracking you as you visit different websites.

“The second thing is to figure out what the risks are that you’re trying to protect yourself from,” he says. Do you care who reads your Facebook updates? Or if someone you don’t know can read your email? The more data you want to protect, the more work you’ll need to do.

“The third layer is control, and that’s the hard part,” Stamm says. For example, if you want to hide all of your Internet traffic and your identity, you’ll need to use Tor or a VPN all the time. Most people, however, just want a reasonable amount of privacy.

Ready to minimize your data footprint? Here’s where to start.

The basics: Six standard operating procedures for online behavior

Draw the line: Decide what’s personal
The traditional definition of personally identifying information (PII) — health records, credit card numbers, social security number, etc. — is so 20th century. The big data age of the Internet is upon us, and even data not previously considered to be PII can feel very personal when viewed in a broader context. “Bits of data, when combined, tell a lot about you,” says Alex Fowler, chief privacy officer at Mozilla. Those aggregated bits, which constitute the new PII, may include such information as your email address, browsing history and search history.

“The definition of PII — information that a person has a legitimate interest in understanding and protecting — is going to be broadened as we move further into the information society,” says Fowler. “It’s a different footprint than what your parents ever thought about.”

“Think about what you consider personal information,” Fowler adds. “You need a working definition.”

Don’t share your personal information — even when asked
Are you responding to surveys by phone or online? Filling out warranty cards? (You need only your receipt to make a warranty claim.) Providing optional preference and demographic information when signing up for an online service? “Most of us give out information trivially,” says Abine’s Shavell, not understanding that all of that information ends up in profiles that may be used by the collector and later shared with data aggregators and others.

When you absolutely must remain anonymous
Tor is an essential tool to use when the sender needs to disseminate information and anonymity is essential. “It is the perfect tool for political dissidents who don’t want their names attached to information,” says Robert Hansen, a security researcher and director of product management at the vendor WhiteHat Security. (Tor also appeals to organized crime and other people who don’t want the law to catch up with their activities.)

But, there’s a cost to using it. “It’s a hassle,” and it can degrade a person’s Web experience, says Casey Oppenheim, CEO at anti-tracking software vendor Disconnect.

Tor consists of an open source browser you can download and a network that acts on your behalf to conceal your identity by preventing others from tracing network traffic back to you.

“Tor tunnels your traffic through a volunteer network of 5,000 relays spread around the world. Tor protects your content in transit by wrapping layers of encryption around your data without modifying or touching your data in transit,” explains Andrew Lewman, executive director of the Tor Project.

Your data keeps hopping from one node to another until a limit is reached. At that point it exits the Tor network and continues on to its destination. (The last node to handle the data is called the exit node). “Tor is essentially a very large, distributed VPN that’s free,” and it works well when used properly, Hansen says.

But it can also be dangerous if you don’t understand how to use it properly, as the Tor Project’s warnings make clear. “Tor can help you remain anonymous — if the account you logged into on the other end isn’t tied back to your real identity,” Hansen says.

“That last machine, the exit node, knows who you are if you submit your information in plain text, and that can break your privacy.” Users should understand that all of the nodes in the Tor network are operated by volunteers, Hansen says. If you’re logged into a service such as an online loan application, the owner of the exit node may be privy to all of that information.

It’s also not a good idea to use Tor to download an executable unless you can verify it hasn’t been tampered with, Hansen says, because the owners of the exit node could, if they wanted to, modify the content and change it to a malicious binary. But, Lewman points out, “Tor exit nodes are no more risky than your ISP’s caching proxy servers and other points along the path.”

Hansen’s recommendation: “Use Tor only over HTTPS, and only when you don’t want your name associated with whatever is going to happen over HTTPS.”

Even then, he says, it is important to remember that some entities out there, such as certain government agencies, may still be able to decrypt the message and identify you.

— Robert L. Mitchell

Lie. About. Everything.

Many online services demand that you divulge some information about yourself if you want to do business with them. If you don’t want to share, you can either choose not to use that service — or you can provide false information. Don’t use your real birthday, email, address and phone number on social network sites, and don’t use real answers when creating answers to challenge questions, says Robert Hansen, a security researcher and director of product management at the website security consultancy WhiteHat Security.

“Never give out any real information about yourself unless absolutely necessary. Lie about everything. That’s basic operational security,” he says.

You may, of course, need a working email address to validate an account. You can create a webmail account specifically for this purpose, or you can use a service such as DoNotTrackMe, which creates “disposable” proxy email addresses and phone numbers for this purpose. Yahoo Mail also offers disposable email addresses.

Create personal and professional personas
Stamm creates and maintains separate personal and professional online profiles for browsing the Web. Specifically, he uses separate instances of Firefox for each persona. “The experience is less noisy,” he says, because his personal and professional web histories aren’t mashed together.

Casey Oppenheim, CEO at anti-tracking software vendor Disconnect, recommends using one browser for Web surfing and another to log into your online accounts like Facebook, Google or Twitter — to reduce cross-site tracking.

Understand how much you’re paying before signing up for “free” apps and online services
By now most people realize that the price you pay for using “free” online websites, apps and services is measured in data collected about you. The question you need to ask is: How high is the price?

Understand exactly what data you are giving up and weigh that against the value of the app or service you’re receiving in return. For example, you might need to share an email address for your Facebook account, but you don’t need to share your telephone number and location data, or allow search engines to index and link to posts on your timeline. You can lower the price somewhat by taking advantage of available privacy controls that let you limit the types of data collected or how it’s used and shared.

But privacy policies can change at any time, and no one knows what will happen to that data in the future. If the developer of an app goes out of business, for example, your data may be sold. Which is why you should always…

Delete your unused online accounts
Do you leave a trail of orphaned accounts behind you as you try different online services? Close them down, or that trail of digital relationships might come back to haunt you. “There are dozens of social networks that came and went over the years, and I think I signed up with every one of them along the way,” says Mozilla’s Fowler.

Many of the services you sign up for eventually disappear. “When they do, that information about you will be sold to someone at some time as an asset,” he says, and the value of those assets is based on how many users they had and what they know about them.

The deeper they got with their customers, the more valuable the assets. “You have no idea how it’s getting used or where it might resurface at another point in your life, so it’s important to take this seriously,” he says.

Tips for surfing the Web silently

Block “third-party” cookies
The publisher of the site you visit isn’t the only organization that knows about your online browsing activity. Many pages have third-party widgets on them that track your computer’s online activity as you move from one site to another on the Web. They do this to sort people (or more specifically, the cookie IDs associated with each person’s computer) into groups that can be targeted with “behavioral advertising” based on interests gleaned from your Web-surfing habits.

One way to minimize your exposure to this kind of marketing and data collection activity is to turn on third-party cookie blocking in your browser. Safari enables this feature by default, while Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox and other popular browsers offer it as an option. If you prefer not to have your browsing activity tracked for behavioral advertising purposes, you should also turn on the “Do Not Track” option found on all popular browsers. This feature sends a “DNT” signal from your browser to Web publishers when you visit their sites.

Go private with your browsing
If you want to minimize your data footprint at home or in the office, or wherever others have physical access to your computer, consider using a secure browser such as WhiteHat Aviator, Dell’s Kace Secure Browser and Comodo Dragon. Alternately, you can use the secure browsing mode in Chrome, Firefox, Safari or IE. This will block third-party cookies, delete first-party cookies at the end of a browsing session and leave no trace of your browsing history and search history on your computer.

“Blocking cookies and clearing them regularly stops most cross-site tracking,” says Brookman.

Be aware, however, that some sites, such as Google, Yahoo and Microsoft, offer single sign-on for all services. So when you sign onto your Gmail account, for example, all of your information — user name, password, webmail, images uploaded, etc. — persists on the provider’s servers.

In addition, your search activity can be tied back to your account and the search history maintained, along with your activity on all other services — unless the provider’s privacy policy precludes it or the vendor offers privacy controls you can use to prevent that information from being stored.

Bottom line: Once you log into a service, all of your activity across all related services from that provider — from webmail to searches — can be tracked back to your account. So log in only when you need to, and be sure to log out when you’re done.

Use anti-tracking software
Unfortunately, blocking third-party cookies doesn’t block the activities of all tracking scripts, and many advertisers ignore the DNT signal, so Hansen recommends installing anti-tracking browser add-ons.

“Something like Disconnect blocks ads plus third-party tracking pixels” and has the added benefit of speeding up Web page load times by removing all of that extraneous tracking activity, Hansen says. Disconnect, Abine’s DoNotTrackMe, Ghostery and other consumer-friendly anti-tracking tools don’t block everything — doing so can break things you want to use — but try to strike a balance for the best user experience. For example, Disconnect doesn’t block Google’s third-party advertising network DoubleClick when you’re using Google services. “Google is already tracking you when you log into google.com, so blocking the doubleclick.net request wouldn’t stop any tracking, and is likely to break the page,” says Casey Oppenheim, Disconnect’s co-CEO.

If that’s not good enough for you, Hansen says, “The extreme level is to use NoScript or RequestPolicy. “Flash, Java, whatever it is, [these tools] block it if it’s cross-domain. It’s uber-draconian, and it breaks just about everything, but it’s very effective,” he says.

These tools also offer greater security because they block malware that attempts to compromise your computer by way of JavaScript include or iframe injection attacks. However, it’s up to users to whitelist content that they want to get through. “You have to know what you’re doing, and it requires a big expenditure of time,” he says.

Secure your searches
Use a search engine such as DuckDuckGo or Startpage — in other words, one that doesn’t retain your search history. (The WhiteHat Aviator browser uses DuckDuckGo as its default search engine.)

Or use a proxy search service such as Disconnect Search, which sits between your browser and the popular search engines so that your search history can’t be tracked. (Ixquick, located in the Netherlands, works in the same way and also has the advantage of being out of reach of the U.S. Patriot Act and the FISA court.)

If you prefer to use a commercial search engine, you may be able to turn off search and browsing history. For example, in Google you can turn off search history from the Google Dashboard, while the Chrome browser offers Incognito mode.

Use HTTPS whenever possible
All data that passes between your browser and the Internet is unencrypted and open to snooping, unless you’ve entered an encrypted session with the service you’re communicating with on the other end. Some sites, such as your bank, will encrypt your communications using the HTTPS protocol by default, while others, such as your webmail, may not. For example, Gmail enabled HTTPS by default three years ago, but Yahoo Mail only began supporting HTTPS one year ago, and it’s not turned on by default. If you’re not sure, check first before you use the service.

You can use the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s HTTPS Everywhere browser extension to make sure you’re using HTTPS when it’s available, but some sites don’t offer HTTPS, says Joseph Lorenzo Hall, chief technologist at the Center for Democracy and Technology. In that case, he says, you may want to consider using a virtual private network (VPN) service.

Sign up for a VPN service
Your IP address gives Web publishers and e-commerce sites an identifier that provides clues to your location. It allows Web publishers to deliver geo-targeted content, such as your local weather, but they can also target you in less pleasant ways. For example, some online retailers have moved to geotargeted pricing, which determines the price you see for an item based on your location and how many brick-and-mortar competitors are nearby. Depending on your location, this could be a good thing or a bad thing.

And if you’re browsing the Web using a public Wi-Fi hotspot, it’s not just your IP address you need to worry about. If your browsing session is unencrypted, all of that data — including user account names and passwords — could be snatched literally from the airwaves.

The solution in both cases is to use a virtual private network (VPN) service such as Astrill, Anonymizer, IPVanish or AnchorFree. These tools not only protect your IP address, but encrypt your communications, which are routed through the VPN service’s servers before going on to the intended destination. “People can’t eavesdrop on what you’re doing, or steal your login credentials and impersonate you,” Hall says.


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IBM workforce cuts raise questions

NY Gov. Cuomo says state has deal with IBM to preserve jobs, but questions arise about what the pact really means

IBM is laying off employees this week, a job action that began in a curious way.

IBM won’t disclose the number of cuts, calling the layoffs part of a “rebalancing” of its workforce as it invest in new technologies. The company points out that at any given time it has more than 3,000 jobs openings in the U.S.

The layoffs may have begun in earnest today. The website at the Alliance@IBM, part of the Communications Workers of America union, was hard to access this morning; a union union organizer said the delays are due to high traffic to its site from IBM employees and others.

Lee Conrad, a national coordinator for the Alliance, estimates that between 4,000 to 6,000 IBM U.S. jobs may be at risk in the latest move, a figure based on previous job actions and IBM’s restructuring goal of $1 billion.

Even though the latest round of layoffs was expected, the week began with an announcement by New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo that IBM had agreed to create new jobs, as well as maintain minimum staffing levels in the state.

There was nothing in the statement announcing the move about a pending job action, and appeared timed to try to blunt the impact of a layoff.

Specifically, Cuomo said, the state had reached “a major agreement” with IBM to “maintain 3,100 high-tech jobs in the Hudson Valley and surrounding areas. The company has committed to increase its minimum job commitment to the state by 750 jobs, and maintain the 3,100 jobs through the end of 2016.”

The statement did not disclose the number of employees that IBM now has in the Hudson Valley area.

IBM is believed to employ about 7,000 workers at its Poughkeepsie and East Fishkill facilities. That estimate is from Dutchess County spokeswoman, who said IBM is the county’s largest employer.

Conrad said the governor’s announcement raises some questions for workers and the region. “Yes, you’re trying to protect 3,100 jobs but what about the other 3,900 jobs?” he said.

The New York governor’s office did not respond to a Computerworld request for comment on the IBM layoffs and the agreement.

When asked, IBM referred all questions to the governor’s office.

In a statement, IBM spokesman Douglas Shelton said that “IBM continues to rebalance its workforce to meet the changing requirements of its clients, and to pioneer new, high value segments of the IT industry.”

Shelton said that IBM is positioning itself to lead in, among other areas, cloud computing, analytics and cognitive computing. He pointed to a $1 billion investment in its new Watson unit and the decision to spend $1.2 billion to expand its global cloud footprint.

In addition, IBM this week announced a $1 billion investment in boosting its platform-as-a-service cloud capabilities, as well as further investments in nanotechnology and othe rareas.

As part of the minimum staffing agreement, Cuomo also announced that the IBM and the state are jointly investing in nanotechnology, and that IBM plans to create some 500 new jobs in Buffalo.

At one time IBM regularly disclosed the number of employees it had in the U.S., but stopped doing so several years ago as the number declined.

The main source of information about IBM’s U.S. employment base has been the Alliance, gathers documents from workers that detail cuts in the various business units. But this information pipeline may be disappearing.

Conrad said Wednesday that IBM has changed how it releases information, something he called a “distributing development.”

IBM employees received documents listing the age, title and number of employees selected for a job cut. These resource action documents, as they are called, no longer include this information, said Conrad.

This data “is how we validated and counted the numbers that we gave you in past job cuts,” said Conrad. “IBM clearly does not want us, you or other employees to know the depth and scope of today’s cuts.”

The Alliance website site, by mid-afternoon, did show 150 jobs cuts in Essex Junction, Vt., and 10 to 15 in Endicott. The Alliance also posted anonymous reports on its Website that show much larger layoff figures.


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